How the Jihadis mercilessly vandalized Hindus of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh and wiped out Hinduism from some parts of India viz., Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Describing a ceremony for collection of the jizya, the 13th century Shafi’i jurist an-Nawawi writes: "The infidel who wishes to pay his poll tax must be treated with disdain by the collector: the collector remains seated and the infidel remains standing in front of him, his head bowed and his back bent. The infidel personally must place the money on the scales, while the collector holds him by the beard, and strikes him on both cheeks".
Fierce and persistent Hindu resistance to the Islamic Jihad prevented the complete Islamization of India
Unlike the complete Islamization of Persia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Turkey, North Africa, the Islamization of India was never complete. After more than one millennium of Muslim Tyranny from 715 up to 1761, more than 70 percent of the population of India remained Hindu. This was NOT due to any Muslim charity or benevolence, since the murderous and savage beastlike Muslims have none of these characteristics.
The Muslim tyranny in India was as blood-thirsty and insidious as it was in all parts of the globe that were unfortunate to be trampled by the Jihadis. The Hindus suffered initial setbacks due to the innocuous but ill-founded belief amongst them, as amongst all other non-Muslims, that the Muslims too were normal human beings, who would after a victory, settle down to govern the defeated population. But once the nightmare of Muslim tyranny began, the Hindus grew wiser relatively faster than most of the other unfortunate victims of the Islamic Jihad.
In the battle for Kubha (Kabul) in 980 C.E., the Muslims defeated the Hindus by using deceit. To ensure the secrecy of their advance, the Muslims had muffled the sounds of their horses by covering the hooves of their horses with felt and cloth. Dressed in black clothes the Muslims almost reached the Hindu camps at 2 A.M. at night as they knew that the Hindus did not fight from Sunset up to Sunrise. After the Hindus retired for the night, the Muslim were busy preparing for a night assault. While the Hindu army was in deep slumber, except for a few scouts, the Muslim army attacked by taking cover of the dark and stormy night. The storm entirely camouflaged the advance of the Muslims as they stealthily crept towards the Hindu camp, after crossing the few hillocks that separated the two camps.
The entire Hindu army was caught unawares, but they still put up a stiff fight against their treacherous and beastly adversaries. The battle continued till past dawn, but the Hindu army had been overpowered, tricked as it had been to give the advantage of surprise to the Muslims. By late morning the remnants of the Hindu army retreated back to their capital Kubha (Kabul), with the Muslims in hot pursuit. The Muslims soon occupied Kabul and continued to push the Hindus eastwards.
Unlike the Zoroastrian Persians, the Hindus never surrendered to the Muslim tyrants. They waged a relentless and violent struggle against the Muslims.
It was the valiant Hindu resistance that put paid all the savagery of the Muslims to convert all the Hindus to Islam at the pain of death.
When fortune favored them, the Hindus returned in almost equal measure, the barbarism of the Muslims and struck fear in Muslim hearts for Hindu warriors like Krishna Deva Raya, Rani Durgavati, Shivaji, Guru Gobind Singh, Banda Singh Bahadur and many others. The reason why the Hindus survived thirteen centuries of savage Muslim tyranny was that they learnt that the art of survival in face of a Muslim attack was giving back almost as much as they got from the beastlike Muslims.
We use the qualifier "almost" as the Hindus slaughtered the Muslims on the battlefield, but did not go to the extent of slaughtering Muslim civilians and giving them the choice of Hinduism or death, Hindus did not molest Muslim women en masse, neither did they destroy, en masse, all Mosques, nor did they build Hindus temples over them (the Babri Masjid-Ramjanabhomi struggle being a one off and very belated case). Never did the Hindus, after a victory, impose a penal tax like the jaziya on all Muslims and reduce the Muslims to such a state of servitude, that for Muslims dying would be more preferable than living under a tyrannous Hindu rule. There is no record of the defeated Muslims saving their skins by either jumping in to the common fire (as the Hindus did in Jauhar) to avoid converting to Hinduism.
It was this valiant Hindu resistance that put paid all the savagery of the Muslims to convert all the Hindus to Islam at the pain of death. But otherwise the sordid tale of Muslim savagery was no less brutal from that in other parts of the world overrun by the Islamic Jihadis.
Muslims invaded India only four years after they invaded Persia
Very few know that while the Muslims invaded Persia in 634, they invaded Sindh in India on the orders of the gangster Umar (the Muslim Khalifa) in 638, just a gap of four years. But while Persia succumbed in seventeen years by 651, Muslims took seven hundred years to overrun India (today Sindh is a part of a Muslim country called Pakistan that was carved out of Hindu India in 1947). And even after that they could not rule India in peace.
Maharana Pratap, the Hindu Rajput king of Rajasthan fought a lifelong battle with the Muslims.
The Hindu resistance was not just fierce, but it kept increasing in ferocity till with the Marathas, the Hindus overtook the Muslims in their ferocity. It was this lesson which the Hindus learnt from the Muslims and applied against the Muslims, that led to the Hindu (Maratha) victories against the beast-like Muslims. It was the Marathas who presaged President Bush when he said "We will hunt down our enemies" The Marathas literally hunted down the Muslims. The only other case of a Muslim defeat in face of such tactics was in Ethiopia and Southern Sudan (Nubia) where the African Christians of Nubia used guerilla tactics against the Muslims to hunt them down and finally to defeat them.
Foul Tactics used by the Muslims against Indians (Hindus)
Although the Arab Muslims on the orders of the gangster Caliph Umar, attacked India in 638, they were repeatedly defeated by the Rajas of Makara (Makran) and Sindh. The Arab chroniclers then wrote derisive accounts of the reasons for their defeats at the hands of the Hindus by saying that the Hindus practice Voodoo and Black Magic and so bring Jinns and Shaitan to help them in war. Hence the Arabs cannot defeat them, the way the Arabs could easily defeat the Persians and the Byzantines.
But the Hindus were tenacious fighters. We need only to remember how the Greeks under Alexander overcame the Persian Achemanian empire in a few years, after which they attacked India, but the Hindus contested the Greeks so fiercely and harassed the Greek army so much that inspite of the Greeks securing a costly victory in the battle along the river Hydaspes (Vitasta, today’s Jhelum), the Greek troops mutinied and refused to advance further into India.
How the Muslims blackmailed a guard to open the door of the fort of Debal
The Muslims too had a tough job with the Hindus. After an unsuccessful campaign of more than eighty years from 638 C.E., the Muslims ultimately captured the Fort of Deval (Debal near modern Karachi) by deceit, by kidnapping the three children of the chief guardsman of the fort of Debal, beheading one and threatening to behead the other two. With this blackmail, they forced him to leave one of the secret trap doors open, after they had feigned retreat. Due to this betrayal, the Muslims could finally sink their ugly claws into India under their beast-like leader Mohammed-ibn-Qasim (Mohammed bin Kasim).
The Hindus never forgot this treachery and eventually learnt from it . In this treacherous attack, the Muslims kidnapped two princesses of the King Dahirsen (Raja Dabir) of Debal. The leader of the Muslim brigands, Qasim and sent them as captives to the Khilafa (Caliph), as a gift with a message that they were royal virgins, meant to be ravished by his holiness (sic) the lecherous Caliph himself. But these princesses outsmarted the Caliph.
The Victory tower erected by Rana Kumbha, the Hindu Rajput ruler of Chittod to commemorate his innumerable victories over the Muslim invaders.
The two princesses tore apart their hymen with their own hands and told the caliph that their modesty had already been violated by Qasim. The Caliph did not believe them, but when he saw for himself the ruptured hymens, he was convinced that Qasim had violated the modesty of the princesses and then sent them over to him. The thought that Qasim had fooled him so enraged the lecherous Caliph that he summoned Qasim to present himself at Baghdad. With Qasim in chains, the Caliph accused him of betrayal. Although Qasim pleaded his innocence, the Caliph, asked for Qasim to be locked in a barrel with nails stuck on the inside and had him rolled down a hill.
Qasim died a cruel but a well deserved death. And the first generation of Hindus whom this beast-like Muslim had tormented and slaughtered, received poetic justice in the death of this accursed Muslim general who vandalized Sindh.
How the Rajput Hindus trounced the Arab Muslims for five hundred years
After the Muslim occupied Sindh, they did not rest quiet, they attacked Punjab, but were repulsed, then they attacked Rajputana, but were repulsed by Kings like Raja Bhoj, and when they attacked Gujarat, they were defeated by the Chalukyas (Solankis) of Anahilwada at the battle of Mount Arbuda (Abu).
The Muslims had studied Hindu warfare practices and misused the weakness of the Hindus to their hilt. Sabuktagin’s spies had told him that the Hindus start warfare at Sunrise and end it at sunset. The crafty Muslim chieftain decided to use this practice of the Hindus against them. After the Hindus retired for the night, the Muslim were busy preparing for a night assault. While the Hindu army was in deep slumber, except for a few scouts, the Muslim army attacked by taking cover of the dark and stormy night. When they were spotted, the Hindu scouts raised a hue and cry to awaken their sleeping troops. But it was too late. Before any significant number of the Hindus could arise to don their armor and be ready to fight the Muslims, a large number of them were done to death while they were half awake and struggling to prepare themselves for war.
Thus the Muslims could not make any headway into India from their occupation of Sindh in 715, up to 980. It was only in the year 980, that the Muslims could invade India once again. But they had to use another gateway. Instead of attacking Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat from Sindh, they attacked the Shahiya kingdom in Upaganastan (Afghanistan – literally the land of allied tribes).
Arabs fail to conquer India, Turks and Mongols (Mughals) take up the Jihad against India
These second Muslim lunge towards India was not led by Arab Muslims, but they were the Persian, Turkish and Mongol converts to Islam. The first Turko-Persian Muslim chieftain to attack the Hindu domains was named Sabuktagin. He ruled from Ghazni and had forced his way up to the domains of Jayapala Shahiya (Hindu-shahis) the Hindu Raja of Kubha (later renamed as Kabul by the city’s Muslims occupiers).
How the Muslims used the peculiar war ethics of the Hindus to craftily defeat them
The Muslims had studied Hindu warfare practices and misused the weakness of the Hindus to their hilt. Sabuktagin’s spies had told him that the Hindus start warfare at Sunrise and end it at sunset.
The crafty Muslim chieftain decided to use this practice of the Hindus against them. He challenged Jayapala Shahiya to open warfare and decided the place and date of the war. True to his word the Hindu king reached the appointed place one day before the day of the war. This was in the year 980. The Muslims too had assembled at the appointed place and the two adversaries exchanged ambassadors and decided that the hostilities would commence at sunrise the next day. After the Hindus retired for the night, the Muslim were busy preparing for a night assault. While the Hindu army was in deep slumber, except for a few scouts, the Muslim army attacked by taking cover of the dark and stormy night. The storm entirely camouflaged the advance of the Muslims as they stealthily crept towards the Hindu camp, after crossing the few hillocks that separated the two camps.
The Jaswant Thada at Jodhpur was erected by Rana Jaswant Singh in memory of the victories the Rajputs secured against the Muslims during the 17th century. The Jaswant Thada rivals the Taj Mahal in its pristine beauty and is a poetry in Marble.
The Muslims had muffled the sounds of their advance by covering the hooves of their horses with felt and cloth. Dressed in dark clothes the Muslims almost reached the Hindu camps at 2 A.M. at night. When they were spotted, the Hindu scouts raised a hue and cry to awaken their sleeping troops. But it was too late. Before any significant number of the Hindus could arise to don their armor and be ready to fight the Muslims, a large number of them were done to death while they were half awake and struggling to prepare themselves for war.
The entire Hindu army was caught unawares, but they still put up a stiff fight against their beastly adversaries. The battle continued till past dawn, but the Hindu army had been overpowered, tricked as it had been to give the advantage of surprise to the Muslims. By late morning the remnants of the Hindu army retreated back to their capital Kubha (Kabul), with the Muslims in hot pursuit. The Muslims soon occupied Kabul and continued to push the Hindus eastwards.
The Muslims came for the luncheon arranged at the banks of the Ravi river where the Hindu army had encamped. While intermingling with the soldiers, the Muslims moved about towards the stables of the Hindu camp and expressed surprise at how the Hindus fed their mighty elephants. The innocuous Hindus were playing the role of the gracious hosts, and indulged their "guests" with every query they asked. After all the Muslims were their guests and the Hindus had a quaint belief that "A guest is like God" (Athithi Devoh Bhava), but little did these unsuspecting Hindus realize that these Muslims guests were Satan incarnate! While the unsuspecting Hindus showed them around the elephant stables, the Muslims secretly fed the elephants poppy seeds (opium) mixed with fruits.
After the defeat at Kubha, the disgraced Hindu king Raja Jayapala Shahiya egged on by his son Anandpala Shahiya decided to shift his capital to Udabandapura (modern day Und in North West Frontier Province – Paktoonisthan the province of the Pakhta tribe mentioned in the Mahabharata period in ancient Hindu). But Jayapala could not bear the humiliation of defeat and decided to immolate himself rather than live with the shame of having been defeated by the Muslims with treachery. The crown passed to his son Anandpala Shahiya.
Thus ended the first Hindu-Muslim encounter in the year 980 C.E. two and half centuries after the Arabs had occupied Sindh in 715 C.E. after their first attacks on India that had started in 638 C.E. After this too it was only in 1192 that the Muslims could capture Delhi and in 1326 that they could reach South India. So more than three centuries of constant and treacherous Muslim attacks were needed to enable the Muslims to make a dent into India and only after nearly seven centuries of Muslim aggression could the Jihadis tentatively and temporarily overrun India. This stands in sharp contract to the swift capture and conversion of Persia, Syria, Egypt, North Africa, and Spain all of which fell to the truculent Muslim armies in less than eighty years from 635 C.E. up to 711 C.E.
How the Muslims poisoned the elephants of the Hindus at the Battle of Lahore to snatch victory once again using subterfuge
The Muslims seized on their victory over the Hindu army and overran the capital Kubha (which was renamed Kabul by the aggressors) they destroyed the Hindu temples there and force converted the Hindu population that stayed behind, to Islam. After the defeat of Jayapala Shahiya, his son Anandpala Shahiya, moved his capital from Kubha (present day Kabul) to Udbhandapura (present day Und where Jayapala committed Jauhar) and finally to Luvkushpura (present day Lahore).
He gathered all allies he could from Northern India and opposed the invading Muslims, now led by Sabuktagin’s son Mahmud of Ghazni. The armies met on the banks of the Ravi near Lahore. In the initial skirmishes, the Muslims were worsted by the Hindus who led the attacks using armor-clad elephants, and were determined to liberate their motherland from the schizophrenic savages which is what the Muslims were. In the initial defeats of the Muslims, the Hindus had pushed the Muslims up to the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. After these defeats, the Muslim realized that the armor-clad Elephants would be their nemesis and put paid any further invasions of India.
As the Muslims came from Afghanistan, they had no access to elephants, so they decided to use subterfuge which was instinctive for the Muslims practiced as it was from the days of the Treaty of Hudaibiya by their lecherous, treacherous, mass-murderer false prophet Mohammed.
The Muslims sent an envoy to Anandpala, saying that they are suing for peace, their conditions were that they should be allowed safe passage out of the country. As a gesture of goodwill they wanted to come over to the Hindu camp and have a common meal with the Hindus, to seal the peace treaty. Against the advice of his allies, the innocuous and unsuspecting Anandpala agreed to meet the treacherous Muslim marauders.
In the initial defeats of the Muslims, the Hindus had used armor-clad elephants. The Muslim realized that these elephants would be their nemesis. As the Muslims came from Afghanistan, they had no access to elephants, so they decided to use subterfuge which was instinctive for the Muslims practiced as it was from the days of the Treaty of Hudaibiya by their lecherous, treacherous, mass-murderer, false prophet Mohammed .
The Muslims came for the luncheon arranged at the banks of the Ravi river where the Hindu army had encamped. While intermingling with the soldiers, the Muslims moved about in the stables of the Hindu camp and expressed surprise at how the Hindus fed their mighty elephants. With the Hindus playing the role of the gracious hosts, indulged their "guests" with every query they asked. After all the Muslims were their guests and the Hindus had a quaint belief that "A guest is like God" (Athithi Devoh Bhava), but little did these unsuspecting Hindus realize that these Muslims guests were Satan incarnate! While the unsuspecting Hindus showed them around the elephant stables, the Muslims secretly fed the elephants poppy seeds (opium) mixed with fruits.
The poppy seeds being raw did not have immediate effect and everything seemed normal. The dastardly deed being done, the Muslim contingent left the Hindu camp and returned to their own camp. The Hindus self-satisfied that the war was over and the peace had now been sealed with a common luncheon began preparations to dismantle their camp.
The Hindus were in for a shock when their elephants refused to obey their mahouts (elephant riders) orders and started running amok and away from the battlefield. The opium that had been fed deceptively by the Muslims, had begun to have its effect. With Anandpala also on one of the elephants which had started running helter-skelter, the confusion grew in the remaining Hindu troops. The Muslims cunningly spread the word that Anandpala was retreating. This led to the disarray and ultimately to defeat of the Hindus at the battle of Lahore.
To their utter amazement, in the next few hours, the Muslim cavalry surrounded the Hindu camp in a pincer move and began a fierce attack with shrieks of Allahuakbar. The confused Hindus belatedly, realized that they had been double-crossed by the Muslims. But manfully they fastened the howdas (seats for the riders of the elephants like saddles for horsemen) to their elephants and charged at the besieging Muslims in a disorderly manner. The Hindus were in for a shock when their elephants refused to obey their mahouts (elephant riders) orders and started running amok and away from the battled. The opium fed deceptively by the Muslims had begun to have its effect. With Anandpala also on one of the elephants which had started running helter-skelter, the confusion grew in the remaining Hindu troops.
The Muslims cunningly spread the word that Anandpala was retreating, as he knew that a new and strengthened Muslim army had joined the existing Muslims forces. The rumor gained credence, as the Hindus saw that Anandpala’s elephant had gone a considerable distance away from the battle. There isolated from his main army, Anandpala was pursued by the Muslims who had kept him under watch. They surrounded him, cut down the leather strips that held his howdah on the elephant, and when the howdah fell on the ground, they decapitated the unfortunate Anandpala, beheaded him, stuck his head on a spike and paraded it before the Hindu army which was already in confusion.
This grisly sight further demoralized the remaining Hindu troops who had initially lost heart when they saw their leader in "retreat". Now with his head on a spike, a sight which they had never seen in battles before, totally unnerved them, and the Hindu retreat turned into a rout, with many of the Hindus massacred on the battlefield.
The Muslims cunningly spread the word that Anandpala was retreating, as he knew that a new and strengthened Muslim army had joined the existing Muslims forces. The rumor gained credence, as the Hindus saw that Anandpala’s elephant had gone a considerable distance away from the battle. There isolated from his main army, Anandpala was pursued by the Muslims who had kept him under watch.
They surrounded him, cut down the leather strips that held his howdah on the elephant, and when the howdah fell on the ground, they decapitated the unfortunate Anandpala, beheaded him, stuck his head on a spike and paraded it before the Hindu army which was already in confusion. This grisly sight further demoralized the remaining Hindu troops who had initially lost heart when they saw their leader in "retreat". Now with his head on a spike, a sight which they had never seen in battles before totally unnerved them, and the Hindu retreat turned into a rout, with many of the Hindus massacred on the battlefield.
The rest was easy, for the Muslims to tear down the remaining Hindu troops and turn what was on the way to becoming a Hindu victory into a Muslim one, with the use of subterfuge and betrayal of the innate faith which the Hindus had even in an unscrupulous enemy like the treacherous Muslims.
This should have been a lesson about the Muslim mind for the Hindus. But it was not to be as, we shall see such foul tricks were repeated over and over again by the Muslims in the coming centuries in their duel of death with the Hindus.
How the Muslims tricked Trilochanpala, kidnapped and murdered him by luring him using Muslims dressed as Hindu hermits (Sanyasis)
After snatching victory through subterfuge at Lahore, the Muslims began to penetrate deeper into the country. Anandpala attained veergati (martyrdom) through the deceit of the Muslims, as had his father Jayapala. Now the teenaged grandson of Jayapala Shaiya, Tirlochanpala Shahiya took the reins of the death struggle against the Muslims in to his hands. He was then just a teenager at seventeen years of age when the ascended the once glorious throne of the Shahiyas.
The Shahiya empire which had once stretched from the rivers Yamuna to the Kubha (Kabul), was now a shadow of its former glory. The first move Tirlochanpala did was to shift the capital from Lahore to Kangra in today’s Himachal Pradesh. Kangra was in a relatively fortified position, from where he tried to reorganize the defense of his vastly reduced domains.
The Shahiya empire which stretched from Herat to Hardwar, was now pushed to one fifth its size and its western border which was once at Heart during the reign of Jayapala Shahiya was now pushed about a thousand miles east at Kalka in the Shivalik Hills which were the foothills of the Himalayas. The Shahiya domains had now shrunk and did not occupy a position to block the further advance of the Muslims into India. But he followed the valiant example of his father and grandfather and allied himself with the kings of Kashyapmeru (Kashmir) and Tibet, to eject the Muslims from Punjab and Upaganasthan (Afghanistan).
Sabuktagin’s son Mahmud Ghazni, wanted to nip this effort in the bud. He again made use of the patented Muslim mechanism of subterfuge. He sent a group of his soldiers dressed up as Hindu mendicants to meet Tirlochanpala. These mendicants went to Kangra and sent in a message that they come from Kubha (Kabul) and bring a message to their king whose ancestors originally ruled Kabul. With this trick, they gained entry into Tirlochanpala’s headquarters at the fortress of Kangra.
Once in his presence, the mendicants surrounded the unsuspecting young prince and sliced his neck and made off with his severed head, leaving a note beside his headless body that Islam will finally overcome anyone who decided to block the path of Allah’s soldiers. A few days later a Muslim army arrived at the Kangra valley, stormed the fort of Kangra, and sacked it of the opulent riches that it held from the once vast Shahiya empire. This happened in the year 1020 C.E. The downfall of the Shahiya empire was so complete within forty years spanning a struggle over three generations that a few centuries later people even doubted if the Shahiyas (Hindu-Shahis) ever existed. The memory of a dynasty that had held guard at the North West frontier of India since the days of the Kushanas in the 3rd century C.E. disappeared into the sands of time. The only reminder today is the ruins of the fortress of Kangra around which the silver coins artfully minted by the Shahiyas are still to be found.
The remainder of the once formidable Shahiya army, became leaderless and demoralized. They migrated deep into the Himalayas and settled down as goat-herds. They came to be known as Gaddis. These Gaddis follow this profession to this day and they still inhabit the Himalayas coming down to the Shivalik foothills and the plains of Punjab in the winter to graze their cattle. Thus with Tirlochapala’s death, the last scion of the Hindu dynasty that ruled Afghanistan and Punjab passed away.
The next Hindu (Sikh) king of Punjab was to be Maharaja Ranjit Singh who ascended the throne after a gap of eight hundred years in the 18th century. The interregnum was to be the dark interlude of Muslim tyranny, during which the majority of the Hindus of Afghanistan, Paktoonistan and West Punjab were converted to Islam at the pain of death.
The plunder of Somanath by Mahmud Ghaznavi
The defeat of the Shahiyas opened the Indian heartland to these heartless invaders and Mahmud of Ghazni, repeatedly attacked India. His raids for plundering and destroying Hindu shrines at Somnath, Palitana, Thanesar (Staneshwara), Mathura, Kannauj, Khajuraho regularly every year are still recollects with dread. His aim initially was limited to collecting a large booty every time as also take many Hindu captives who were sold into slavery in the bazaars of Baghdad and other Muslim cities. His raid on the famous Hindu shrine of Somnath located at Prabhash Patan in Gujarat is seared in Hindu memory till today.
The many Hindu captives that he took from were transported on foot across the Western ranges of the Himalayas. Many Hindu captives could not face up to the merciless treatment of their cruel captors, and died in large numbers along the way. These deaths of the Hindus is remembered in the name which the Muslim gave to the Western Himalayas as "Hindu Kush", which means the Killer of Hindus (Kush means ‘to kill’ in Persian)
How the Hindus inflicted the first major and decisive defeat on Muslims at the battle of Baharaich in 1033
The fact that in spite of the subterfuge that the Muslims used, the Hindus did register one spectacular victory over the Muslims in 1033 at Baharaich in today’s Uttar Pradesh. The invader was Mahumd Ghazni’s son, Masud Ghazni, who following his father’s footsteps invaded India with a large army. The difference now was that he did not intend limiting himself to looting as his father had done, but planned a permanent occupation of the entire country.
With this aim in mind, he penetrated deep in to the Ganges valley and established his camp at Baharaich in today’s eastern Uttar Pradesh. From there he sent word to the surrounding Hindu kings to surrender and embrace Islam!
As was their practice, before the beginning of hostilities, the Hindu kings also sent a messenger to Masud that this land being theirs, his troops should peacefully vacate it (as was done once again unsuccessfully by the Government of India before the inception of the 1999 Kargil war when Pakistan occupied Indian territory at Kargil Drass and Mushkoh sectors in Kashmir). But Masud sent a reply that all land belonged to Khuda (the Persianized version of Allah) and he could settle wherever he pleased. And that it was his holy duty to convert to Islam all those who did not recognize his Khuda and accept Islam.
Consequently, Masud’s huge army was besieged by the even greater Hindu army and no side gave the other any quarter. The Hindus, for once as an exception had learnt their lesson about Muslim treachery, after being victimized for four hundred years from 638 onwards. At the battle of Baharaich, gradually the Hindus began to decimate the Muslim army and as the hostilities progressed, Masud saw the unsuccessful end of his expedition. This bitter and bloody war was fought in the month of June 1033.
In this ferocious and bloodied war, no side took any prisoners and it ended only with the slaughter of the entire invading Muslim army along with many martyrs from the defending Hindu army.
What was exceptional during this war was that the folly of pardoning a defeated enemy, that was displayed by Prithviraj Chauhan 160 years later in 1191, was not to be seen. The Hindus seemed to have followed the tradition of their ancient king Ramchandra of Ayodhya when he defeated and killed Ravana and his entire army at the battle of Lanka.
The battle of Baharaich ended on 14th June 1033. At the gory end, the entire invading army along with their commander lay dead. Not one enemy soldier was allowed to return. There still exists today near Baharaich the grave of the commander of the invader – Prince Ghazi Mian Masud. There he is hailed today by the local Muslims as a Ghazi and a Peer (a Muslim who is raised sainthood by being a killer of non-Muslims). And every year till this day an Urs (Muslim religious assemblage) is held in his memory. What is forgotten is the valiance of the Hindu soldiers who lost their lives in this major victory against the first Jihadi invasion in to the Indian heartland. Ironically and foolishly, some local Hindus too visit the invader’s grave to ask for personal boons.
After this decisive and ruthless Hindu victory, peace prevailed in the country for a century and a half; till the next (and now, unfortunately a successful) wave of Muslim invasions started under the leadership of Mohammed Ghori.
This interlude of one hundred and fifty years from 1033 up to 1187, had made the Hindus forget the treacherous nature of the Muslims. The Ghaznivid kingdom of West Punjab (established by Mahmud Ghazni on the former territory of the Shahiya kingdom), had made peace with its Hindu neighbors and the Hindus were under a delusion that the Muslims were like any other invader who would settle down in India and be absorbed into Hindu society, as had happened earlier with the Greeks, Huns, Kushans, etc.
The policy of the Ghaznivid occupiers of West Punjab to issue coins in Sanskrit and use the Sanskrit version of Muslim names as Mahamada for Mohammed, fuelled this wrong impression about the true nature of the Muslims in the minds of the innocuous Hindus.
Mohammed-ibn-Sam or Mohammed of Ghauri (Ghori), the tormentor of Hindus was a descendant of Hindu converts to Islam
The next Muslim onslaught came in the year 1187, when the Muslim chieftain of a place named Ghor in Afghanistan, overthrew the Ghaznavid ruler in Ghazni. These Gauris (pronounced by the Muslims as Ghauri, Ghori and rendered in English as Ghurid) were originally Hindu cowherds and were subjects of the Shahiyas, who had been converted by force to Islam, by the Ghaznavids, who overthrew the Shahiya power in Afghanistan in 980 C.E.
Now in the 1187 After a lapse of 200 years, these ex-Hindus who had been forced to embrace Islam, had become cruel and merciless like any other Muslims and not a trace of their Hindu ancestry was evident in their mindset, except for the name Gauri (derived from Gau which means cow in Sanskrit). Their name "Gauri" traced their humble origins as Hindu cowherds. From their name Gauri, the place from where they hail, derived its Islamized name Ghaur or Ghor. Though Muslims, the Gauris got poetic justice, by annihilating the kingdom of their former tormentors, the Ghaznavids. But ironically these former Hindu cowherds, the Gauris had now become the new ruthless tormentors of their former compatriots – the Hindus.
Solankis of Anahilwada utterly defeat Mohammed in 1187 and force him to flee
After overcoming the Ghaznivid governor of Punjab, Mohammed Ghori found his way into India proper blocked by three powerful Hindu kingdoms – the Solankis (Chalukyas) of Anahilwada in Gujarat, the Chahmanas (Chouhans) of Delhi, Ajmer and Sambhar; and the Rathods (Gahadwals) of Kannauj (Uttar Pradesh).
Mohammed allied himself with the Muslim governor of Sindh and in 1187, unleashed the full fury of his aggression on Gujarat. But to his misfortune, the Hindu Solankis (Chalukyas) of Anahilwada, defeated him utterly at the battle on the plains below Mount Arbuda (Abu) and forced him to retreat across the Thar desert.
Thus the S9olankis of Gujarat once again lit the bright flame of Hindu valor in Gujarat in repelling a Muslim attack. The next time this flame in Gujarat was to be lit while resisting a Muslim barbarity was in March 2002, when the Hindus of Gujarat, retaliated massively against the Muslims who had roasted alive 58 Hindu pilgrims in a Railroad coach near Godhra Railway station when they were returning from a pilgrimage to a Hindu holy town Ayodhya.
It was at Ayodhya where Babar another Muslim invader had demolished a major Hindu temple dedicated to Rama, an ancient Hindu king, who has been deified as a god by the Hindus and is a popular deity in India. This is the present Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid issue between the Hindus and Muslims in India. He dynasty founded by Babar literally took their mindset after his name and should aptly be called "Babarians" as they demolished temples (as was done by Aurangzeb at Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura and many other places), they also slaughtered soldiers who had surrendered (as was done by Akbar at Chittod where he slaughtered thirty thousand Rajput soldiers who had surrendered to him good faith.)
How the Muslims covered their retreat by using a herd of cows to prevent the Hindu army from pursuing them
Returning to the 12th century when Mohammed Ghori was defeated by the Solankis and had to retreat from the western edge of the Thar, he tried invading India from another route. But on the other side of the Thar lay the domains of the Maharaja of Sambhar (Shaka-ambara) Prithviraj Chauhan, who was known for his bravery and chivalry.
Mohammed having tasted defeat at Hindu hands once, decided to make use of subterfuge. He studied Hindu warfare, as had been done by Sabuktgin two hundred years before him. Thus, fully prepared to invade India, he advanced through West Punjab and laid siege to the fortress of Bhatinda in East Punjab, that lay on the borders of Prithvitraja’s domains. Soon, he had to face the wrath of the Rajputs, and at Tarain (also known as Taraori) in today’s Haryana, the two armies clashed furiously.
Mohammed Ghori captured by Prithviraj Chouhan
In face of the repeated onslaughts of the Rajput cavalry, the Muslims broke ranks and fled leaving their king Mohammed Ghori a prisoner in Prithviraja’s hands. Their defeat by the Solankis of Anahilwada had given the Muslims a foretaste of Hindu valor. But in that retreat they had to leave behind many of the best steeds in their cavalry which fell in to the hands of the pursuing Solanki army.
To prevent this from happening again this time, the Muslims resorted to a trick. Once the fortunes of the battle turned against them at Tarain, and their king Mohammed Ghori himself was captured by the Rajputs, the Muslims broke into retreat, with the Rajputs in hot pursuit, the fleeing Muslim general Kutub-ud-din Aibak let loose a large herd of cows chained to each other to block the path of the pursing Hindu army. Thus with their path blocked by bovines, whom the Hindus looked upon as a deity, it was impossible for the Hindus to cut down the cows blocking their path, and the Muslim army shrewdly made its escape, reducing its losses and preventing many Muslim soldiers from being taken as captives by the victorious Hindus.
How Prithviraja foolishly pardoned Mohammed Ghori whom he had defeated and captured in 1191
When the captured Mohammed Ghori was brought before Prithviraja as a captive bound in chains, he pretended to be repentant, while internally he was seething with rage at being humiliated for having been captured by a Kafir king. This rage proved itself a few years later when their (Prithviraj’s and Ghori’s) roles were reversed.
But for now as a prisoner in chains before Prithviraja, Mohammed Ghori begged for mercy and promised that he would never lift his eyes toward India.
This foolishly melted the innocuous Prithviraja and he ordered that Mohammed’s chains be removed. In his feigned gratitude Mohamed told Prithviraja that he was like his brother. This statement floored Prithviraja even further. Going against the advice of his friend Chand Vardai, his generals Hammira, and the brave warrior twins Aalaa and Uddhal, he ordered Mohammed to be released and as a token of his generosity, he also gifted his captive five hundred horses and twenty elephants and honorably released him!
Once freed, the vengeful Mohammed who was seething for revenge made his way back to Ghori and planned his next attack on Prithviraj!
The fortress town of Chittod was the site of many seminal battles between the Hindus (Rajputs) and the Muslim aggressors. In these see-saw battles ultimately, after a struggle over thirteen centuries, the Hindus prevailed over the Muslims in spite of Muslim deception treachery and cruelty.
On reaching Ghor, Mohammed reneged on his sham promise to Prithviraj and promptly murdered the escorts and envoys that Privithraja had sent to accompany Mohammed to Ghor and sent their severed heads as token of his "goodwill" to the astonished Prithviraj. Mohammed Ghori also immediately started preparing for another assault on India. Going by the experiences of his two defeats at the hands of the Solankis and Chauhans, Mohammed Ghori decided to go by subterfuge, the patented mentality of the Muslims that has given them victory over more powerful, but less scheming and treacherous adversaries.
Mohammed’s spies told him that whenever the Hindus battled each other, the armies fought from sunrise up to sunset. There was no warfare before Sunrise and after sunset (in the hours of darkness).
Mohammed’s use of subterfuge to defeat Prithviraja
In the following year, Mohammed broke his deceptive promise to Prithviraja and attacked India once again. The two armies again gathered at the same battlefield at Tarain. The Rajput army had camped near a river so as to do their morning ablutions before the war could be joined on the next morning, as was decided by the two commanders. But violating convention, the Muslim army attacked at 3 A.M. before dawn, as had the army of Sabuktgin in the year 980 (a fact which the Hindus had foolishly forgotten).
When the Muslims unexpectedly broke into the Hindu camp, Prithviraj’s soldiers had begun their morning ablutions and some were still asleep, and so were totally unprepared for the assault. But they did their best to group their forces and resist the Muslims. The Muslims had the advantage of surprise which they had gained by deceit.
The uneven battle continued till noon, by when the Muslims had slaughtered many of the Rajputs. But the Rajputs did not yield and slaughtered many of their treacherous Muslim enemy too and gradually gained the upper hand. By Midday, it looked like the second battle of Tarain would also go the way the first had gone. Mohammed saw victory slipping from his hands once again.
So he resorted to another patented Muslim subterfuge of single combat – called Mard-o-Mard in Farsi (Persian). This is a technique which Muslims had used quite cunningly against the Zoroastrian Persians, some six centuries earlier when the barbaric Muslim hordes first burst out of Arabia.
In order to humiliate Prithviraj, Mohammed sent word that he would call off the battle, if Prithviraja came and fought his champion Qutub-ud-din Aibak in single combat. To save the lives of his soldiers, and to conclude the war quickly Prithviraja agreed. The rule in single combat was that when one combatant is either pinned down or killed, the army to which he belongs concedes defeat retreats. No other combatant is allowed to participate in this combat, hence the name single combat.
But with the insidious Muslims, this rule did not hold. So at the battle of Tarain, when the two met and Prithviraja’s sword felt heavy on Qutub who risked losing his life, Qutub resorted to a feint and by whirling below his saddle he cut off the feet of Prithviraja’s horse, before Prithviraj could realize what he was up to. This made Prithviraja trip and fall of his horse.
This was a foul move, and it would have been fair, had Qutub, also dismounted and fought Prithviraja on foot. Instead at a pre-arranged signal from Qutub, a band of truculent Muslim soldiers, who had till then stood aside in the grab of horse-tenders, jumped on Prithviraja, pinned him down, pressed on his face a dose of hashish (that grew abundantly in the poppy farms of Afghanistan as they do till this day) bound the drugged Prithviraja in chains and galloped away with him as a prisoner into their ranks, before the Rajputs could realize what had happened.
The Muslim immediately carried away the captive and drugged Prithviraj and hoisted him on one of the elephants that Prithviraj had gifted to Mohammed Ghori when he had released Ghori. The Muslim spread a rumor in the Rajput camp that Prithviraj was dead and that they were holding aloft his dead body to show the Rajputs the futility of fighting further.
When the Rajputs evidently saw that they their Maharaj (King) was dead with his corpse in the hands of the enemy, they lost nerve and through enraged, fell back against Pithoragarh, their fortified capital at Mehrauli near Delhi.
The betrayal and blinding of Prithviraja, and how he avenged his humiliation
When Prithviraj was presented in chains before Mohammed Ghori, he reminded Mohammed how Ghori was himself presented before Prithviraja in chains and how Prithviraja had honorably released him. On hearing this Mohammed and his courtiers laughed derisively at Prithviraja. When Prithviraja glared back at Mohammed and his courtiers, Mohammed ordered him to lower his eyes as he was now a captive. When Prithviraja told him that a Rajput’s eyes are lowered only after death, Mohammed in a fit of rage ordered that Prithviraja’s eyes be pierced with red hot irons. He kept the blinded Pritiviraja in solitary confinement and had him occasionally hauled to his court for being made fun of as the "Lion of Delhi".
During this period of humiliating captivity, Prithviraja was joined by his friend and biographer Chandra Vardai (Chand Bardai) who joined his master in prison, after offering himself as a prisoner to Mohammed. It was in prison, that Chandra Vardai told Prithviraja of a plan to avenge his betrayal and humiliation. Before an annual event of Buskhazi (a kind of wild sport in which the Afghans indulged), Chandra Vardai told Mohammed, that Prithviraja would like to show his skill in archery, but he would accept orders only from a king who had defeated him. And as Mohammed was the only king who had done that, Mohammed Ghori himself would have to order Prithviraj to shoot!
Mohammed’s ego being rubbed the right way, he readily agreed. On the said day Prithviraja was brought to the assemblage. And when Mohammed gave the order for Prithviraja to shoot, Chandra Vardai in the following poetic stanza "Char bans, chaubis gaj, angul asta pramaan, Ete pai Sultan hai, Ab mat chuko Chouhan." (Ten measures ahead of you and twenty four feet away, is seated the Sultan, do not miss him now, Chouhan). On hearing these words Prithviraja whirled in the direction of Mohammed and shot three arrows one after the other and wounded Mohammed fatally. Thus Prithviraja had his justice, although due to his folly in pardoning the ghoulish fiend Mohammed, he lost his kingdom and India lost its sovereignty.
The battle scarred ramparts of Chittod fort witnessed many treacherous attempts by the Muslims to conquer this fort. And although they did capture it with trickery a couple of times, they could never hold it for long
The reasons for the Muslim characters of the lands known today as Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Today we do not have an idea of how a merciless Islamic Jihad forcibly transformed Hindu society of Pakistan and Bangladesh into a Muslim one with a merciless tyranny of one thousand years. While in the erstwhile Indian territory of what is today Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh; Hinduism was supplanted entirely by Islam, in what is today India; the Muslim tyranny succeeded only partially in converting a part of the population to Islam.
In fact those parts of erstwhile Hindu and Buddhist India where a majority of the Hindus and Buddhists were converted to Islam have become distinct Muslim nations of Afghanistan Pakistan and Bangladesh today. These countries were parts of India, before the Muslims invaded that part of the world.
We shall see at the end of this article the methods used by the Muslim tormentors to convert a large part of the Hindus to Islam. Many Muslims today raise a canard about an alleged tolerant nature of Muslim rule in India because of which a majority of Indian today have remained Hindus. They try to pull wool over your eyes, and are supported by the unabashedly pro-Jihadi, pro-terrorist anchors in Indian electronic media like NDTV and IBN and in the English print media in India like the Muslim managed "Asian Age", and the communist controlled "Hindu" along with the pink-tinted Times of India, Indian Express, and many other leading (rather misleading) national dailies in India.
These pro-terrorist scoundrels from the NDTV and IBN often pose (rather impose) a question as to how only eleven percent of the population of India is Muslim if the Muslim rulers were tormentors who made Hindus accept Islam at the point of the sword?
The issue here is that in historic times when we refer to India we include all those parts that were inhabited by Hindus and Buddhists before the Muslim aggression. So what is today Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan as well as India, are parts of historic India. And so when we consider this geographic entity as one whole, the population of Muslims (in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh together accounts for fifty five percent).
The fact that Hindus still account for forty five percent of the population is due to the fact that in Rajputana, Maharashtra, Orissa, Nepal, Assam and South India, the Hindus defeated and rolled back the Muslim aggressors, so its was these parts that remained predominantly Hindu. In other parts of India, like Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh which were under Muslim rule for an unbroken one thousand years, the Hindu population was decimated to almost zero. This holds true for the former Indian provinces of Gandhara (Kandahar), Kubha (Kabul), Makara (Makran), Sakastana (Siestan/Balouchistan), Sindh, West Punjab, Paktoonistan, East Bengal (Bangladesh). And in the Indian provinces like Uttar Pradesh (formerly United Provinces), Bihar, Kerala and West Bengal, the population of Muslims is today around thirty percent and is growing fast due to Islamic polygamy and accelerated breeding rates.
Today this process of Islamization is still on in Kashmir through the use of terror, but in other parts of India where these tactics would be fiercely resisted by the Hindus, the process of using the womb bomb to increase the Muslim population is being used to the hilt by the mushrooming of high fertility rates among Muslim who can have four wives at one time, with women being treated like baby producing factories.
This Muslim baby boom is happening in the Terai region of Uttaranchal, northern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Assam, parts of Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad) and Kerala. There are many districts in India which today are Muslim majority areas. According to unofficial estimates the Muslim population in India is today at 25 percent. Thus if we look at historic India those parts which were under Muslim tyranny the Hindu population was decimated to nil. And in the rest of the country, it was the fierce Hindu resistance and counter attack that led to the Hindu character of some Indian provinces to be salvaged in spite of the merciless Muslim tyranny.
In the following paragraphs we shall see the fierce resistance put up to Muslim tyranny by Hindu rulers like Man Singh Tomar, Maharana Sangram Singh, Maharana Pratap, Harihara Raya, Krishna Deva Raya, Narsimhadeva, Lachit Barphukan, Guru Govind Singh Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj and other Hindu bravehearts.
It was after repeated unnerving experiences of Muslim treachery, subterfuge, deceit; that wisdom finally dawned on some of the Hindus that enabled some of them to launch a successful counter attack on their Muslim tormentors.
The Maratha Hindu warrior King Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj was the epitome of this successful Hindu counter-attack on Islam which turned the patented Muslim techniques of deceit and subterfuge on the Muslims themselves.
The Hindu Counterattack on Muslims
The Hindu counterattack against Islam does not have any fixed date. From the very first battles of the Rajas of Makara (Makran) and Sindh in 638, till the final elimination of Muslim rule by the Marathas, Jats, Rajputs, Gurkhas and Sikhs in the 18th and early 19th centuries, this constant Hindu-Muslim war did not stop. So we can only define the counterattack as that period when the Hindus started turning the tactics of their Muslim tormentors on the tormentors. The first to do that was the King of Orissa – Narasimhadeva.
How Narasimhadeva defeated Tugan Khan in 1248 C.E.
After the easy victories over North India from Punjab, through Bengal, the Muslims turned to attack Orissa. Here the Muslims met their match. The people of Orissa were hardy fighters. (In ancient and medieval times, Orissa was also called Kalinga or Utkal – from Uttam Kala which means ‘Excellent Art’ that reflects the artistic tradition of sculpture of that region) The bravehearts of Orissa had given a hard time to Samrat Ashoka Mauya, when in the 3rd century B.C.E. Kumara, the king of Kalinga, gave a tough battle to the Mauryan invader, before Orissa could be annexed to the Maurya Empire.
Now in the 13th century, when Tugan Khan attacked Orissa, the then ruling king of Orissa, Narsimhadeva, decided to use subterfuge against the Muslims. He sent word to the invader that he wanted to surrender without a fight, as had Lakshmansena, the ruler of Bengal.
Tugan had easily conquered Bengal a few years before attacking Orissa. He found Bengal to be easy meat as the king of Bengal instead of fighting fled the advancing Muslim armies and Begal fell without a fight. Having tasted blood in Bengal, Tugan thought that the conquest of Orissa would also be a cakewalk.
The victorious King of Orissa, Narasimhadeva erected a victory pillar designed as a war chariot. This temple was dedicated to Surya the Sun god, at a location near the temple town of Puri. He named this place Konark which means "Essence of the Corners" While the structure commemorates the victory in the battle against the Muslims, the name Konark commemorates the science of astronomy of which the King was an avid student.
Tugan boasted that he had put the fear of death in the heart of the Hindus and could overrun the entire country in a single campaign. But Narasimhadeva had other ideas. He decided to use the Muslims’ patent tool subterfuge against the enemy. He sent word to Tugan that Orissa was ready to surrender to the Muslims without a fight, as had its neighbor Bengal. Tugan accepted Narasimhadeva’s surrender proposal and asked for the surrender of the major city of Puri that was an important Hindu Pilgrim center (Narasimhadeva had his capital elsewhere at Jajanagara). Tugan’s other conditions included handing over all weapons to the Muslim army, the embracing of Islam by the entire population in the central square in front of the Jagannath Temple or agreeing to pay Jazia and to convert the Jagnnath temple at Puri into Mosque as a acknowledgement of submission.
To the delight of the Muslims, all these terms were accepted and the Muslims advanced into the city, blissfully unaware that the shrewd Hindu king had laid a trap for them. On the orders of Narasimhadeva, the bustling city had been completely evacuated of its pilgrims, the aged and children; and professional soldiers from all over the kingdom had occupied every nook and cranny of the city, hidden away inside the closely built houses across the narrow winding lanes.
Once the Muslim army was inside the city, it had to disperse itself into the maze of narrow lanes and bylanes with which they were not familiar and where they had to dismount from their horses and advance single file.
Unaware of the danger lurking they advanced cautiously and slowly towards the central square where the surrender ceremony was to take place.
When the Muslim army was so dispersed, at a prearranged signal from one of lookouts from the temple spires, the temple bells started ringing, and this was the signal for the Hindus to pounce on the Muslims. The pitched battle lasted one whole day and went into the night pierced by the cries of wounded and dying Muslim and Hindu soldiers. While the Hindus took many losses, the entire Muslim army was caught like as in a mousetrap, and annihilated. Very few Muslims could escape this trap.
This bold and unorthodox idea succeeded, and it caught the Muslim totally off-guard as it had never been used till then, by any Hindu king, as it went against the Hindu rules of warfare based on fair-play and fighting a noble war.
But precisely because of it being totally unexpected, the Muslims had to suffer a bloody nose and the Hindus emerged victorious. COnsequently Orissa was to remain a Hindu bastion for many centuries and this accounts for the very low percentage of Muslims in Orrisa even today, unlike Bengal, where the eastern part (known today as Bangladesh) has been totally Islamized, and the Western half of Bengal is undergoing the process of Islamization especially in the district of Murshidabad.
The victorious King of Orissa, Narasimhadeva erected a victory pillar designed as a war chariot. This temple was dedicated to Surya the Sun god, at a location near the temple town of Puri. He named this place Konark which means "Essence of the Corners" While the structure commemorates the victory in the battle against the Muslims, the name Konark commemorates the science of astronomy of which the King was an avid student.
Although the Hindus of south India, like the Kings of Vijaynagar and the Marathas of Pune, displayed this shrewdness against the Muslims; in the North the Rajputs continued to wage a noble war with the ignoble Muslims and lost out. It was for this reason, that the Muslims could never entirely subjugate the Southern half of India (Dakkan or Deccan from Dakshin which means south in Sanskrit) as they did with North India.
It was Hindus of Vijayanagar in the South who gave a tougher time to the Muslims as compared to the Rajput Hindus and held back the tide of Muslim aggression at the Krishna river. And it was the Maratha Hindus who finally threw off the Muslim yoke and marched northwards to liberate North India, the Marathas marched in to Delhi in 1720, and then onwards in to Punjab and beyond up to Attock in Paktoonisthan in 1756.
Statue of a Hindu god of war – Narasimha who was the patron deity of the Kings of Vijaynagar who led the Hindu resistance to Islam in South India.
How Vijaynagar survived for two hundred years all through battling the Muslim Aggressors from 1331 up to 1565
Vijaynagar, was the first Hindu kingdom which gave up the Hindu practice of not molesting non-combatants. Thus they started paying the Muslims with the same token. Whenever the armies of Vijaynagar overran any Bahamani town or village they torched it. With this they put the fear of death into Muslim minds and soon, the Adilshahi and Nizamshahi sultans sued for a treaty with Vijaynagar that would proscribe the killing of civilians by either side.
From then on till Vijaynagar was finally defeated at the battle of Talikotai and dramatically and savagely destroyed immediately after the battle, was this treaty adhered to by both the Hindus and Muslims. But with the final defeat of the Hindus at Talikotai, the Muslims repudiated this treaty, as their founder Mohammed-ibn-abdallah had repudiated the treaty of Hudaibiya, and after so after the battle of Talikotai the truculent Muslims indulged in a gory slaughter of all the Hindu inhabitants of Vijaynagar, they murdered everyone they could lay their hands on. Not a single person was allowed to live in that beleaguered city. The city itself was reduced to rubble, after six months of ceaseless pillage and wanton destruction.
Lessons from the Muslim’ massacre and destruction of Vijaynagar in spite of treaty prohibiting the molesting of non-combatants
This teaches us two lessons. One that only when you pay back the Muslims with the same barbaric token, that they can come temporarily to their senses. But never ever trust the Muslims for their word, since the word of a Muslim is given only as matter of expediency. Whenever fortune favors them, they would go back on their word! In fact, their founder Mohammed-ibn-Abdallah has set an example for them with his repudiation of the Treaty of Hudaibiya that he signed with his clansmen the Quraish of Makkah. And all Muslims have to follow his "illustrious(sic)" example in their dealings with all Kafirs (non-Muslims).
Likewise, when all non-Muslims should enter into any agreement with Muslims only if the Muslims cannot be beaten militarily, and when the fortune favors the non-Muslims, they should repudiate any treaty with the Muslims and resume hostilities with the one single aim of destroying Islam. There is no other way of salvation for humankind, from this vile creed of the Islam.
Returining to India, while the Hindu kings of Orissa and of Vijaynagar, successfully defended themselves and arrested the Muslim aggression, it was the Marathas under their shrewd and visionary leader Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj who not only liberated their province of Maharashtra from Muslim tyranny, but took the flame of independence from Muslim tyranny all across Central, Northern India and to parts of Southern and Eastern India.
Shivaji epitomized this successful Hindu counter-attack on Islam where he outdid the Muslims in their games of deceit, treachery, subterfuge, all gift-wrapped with the technique of guerilla warfare that gave the Muslims sleepless night and nightmares to the Muslim tyrant Aurangzeb, who thought that he had begun too see the demise of Muslim power in India.
With the Marathas it seemed that wisdom had finally dawned on some of the Hindus on the only effective way to counterattack the Muslims successfully. Using deceit and cruelty as a rule against the Muslim enemy, the Hindu Marathas seemed poised to dislodge Muslim power from India. But that was not to be as we shall see at the bottom of this article.
Hemu Vikramaditya and Khusro Khan – Hindus who came close to liberating India from its Muslim tormentors
In the one thousand years of the gradual Muslim occupation of North India from 715 to 1720 many Hindus aspired to overthrow the tyrannical Muslim occupation of their fatherland.
Khusro Khan – A Hindu convert briefly overthrows the Khilji dynasty in 1320
In the early 14th century (1312) Gujarat was overrun by the Muslim tyrants of who had a century earlier occupied Delhi. As was customary, the Muslims slaughtered countless Hindu victims after every victory. They also carried off many beautiful women and handsome young man as captives, to be used as sex slaves. One such handsome child was Khusro Khan. This was not his original name when he was carried off as a prisoner at the age of eleven. Even at that tender age, he had chiseled features and was fair complexioned. He belonged to the Makwana sub-caste of North Gujarat.
As was the custom, all captives were forcibly converted to Islam and brought up as slaves. After nearly fifteen years in captivity Khusro Khan forgot what his original name was. He only faintly recollected that he had a different childhood which he shared with the other captives from Gujarat.
His stunning features and fair complexion evoked the perverted lust of his captor Sultan Allaudin Khilji’s perverted son, Qutbuddin Mubarak Khalji. He like his more notorious father Alauddin Khalji, were in love with their young male slaves. Qutbuddin Mubarak had a particular fondness for his slave Khusro Khan and as a teenager, Khusro was sexually abused by Qutbuddin Mubarak for eight years.
Khusro seethed for revenge against this barbarity that robbed him of his childhood and early youth.
In 1320, Qutbuddin murdered his ageing father Allaudin and crowned himself emperor. By then Khushro had acquired a position of influence over Qutbuddin. Khusro had also used this influence to gather other captives like him and had arm them to make up Qutbuddin’s bodyguard. Khusro often wanted to put a sword through the Sultan and kill him while he was doing the immoral act of publicly kissing him. All through his teens, Khusro was forced to publicly offer his body to the Sultan like a prostitute. He did this apparent cheer, but within himself he was seething with rage and had been choking up with a desire for revenge at the way the Sultan forced himself upon him and took advantage of him.
During the struggle for power in 1320 when Qutbuddin murdered his ageing father, Khusro got his chance. Qutbuddin had put his trust in his partner in perverted sex, Khusro and put him in charge of guarding his royal quarters. Qutbuddin Mubarak excluded all his father’s men from important duties in the palace and the army.
Taking advantage of his position and the general resentment for Qutbuddin, Khusro murdered Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji, and crowned himself king and assumed the title Khusro Khan. And what was a shock to the whole of India, especially to the Muslims occupying Delhi was that Khusro declared himself to be a Hindu again!! When he ascended the throne, Khusro Khan was only nineteen years of age. The Muslim nobility was shell-shocked, but with the strong contigent of Gujarati converts around Khusro Khan, they were momentarily stunned into inaction. However, they began plotting the overthrow of Khusro Khan – who in their eyes was a Murtad who had abjured Islam.
Eventually, after a year, a Muslim General Ghazi Malik (who later took on the title Giyasuddin Tughlak) murdered Khusro and re-established the rule of Muslims in Delhi. After a brief interlude of Hindu rule, Ghazi Malik founded the Tughluq dynasty. But this event proved that if the Hindus had the determination grit and shrewdness, they could overturn Muslim rule in India. A dream that was to be realized later by the Marathas when they marched in to Delhi in 1720.
Hemu Vikramaditya came close to overthrowing the Mughal dynasty at the 2nd battle of Panipat
On 24th January 1556 CE the Mughal ruler Humayun slipped while climbing down the steps of his library and fell to his death. The heir to the Mughal throne, 13 year old Akbar was then campaigning in Punjab with his chief minister Bairam Khan. On February 14, 1556, in a garden at Kalanaur, Akbar was enthroned as emperor. The other rivals for the throne of Delhi were the three Afgan princes of Sher Shah. However the main threat to Akbar’s future came not from the Afgan princes but from a Hindu anmed Hemu. Hemu was the Hindu chief minister of Afgan prince Adil Shah and he led a surprise attack on Delhi in October 1556.
The Mughal forces under its governor Tardi Beg Khan panicked and went into a sudden ignominious flight. This was Hemu’s twenty second consecutive victory in successive battles. After the capture of Delhi, Hemu set up himself as an independent ruler under the Hindu title of ‘Raja Vikramaditya’. At this juncture against the advice of most nobles, Akbar and Bairam Khan took a courageous decision, to press forward against Hemu’s undoubtedly superior forces. On November 5, 1556 the Mughul forces met the Hemu’s army at Panipat.
In this second battle of Panipat, the Mughals were saved by a lucky accident after a hard fight which looked more than likely to go against them. Hemu who was leading the battle from atop an elephant, veered too close to the enemy ranks, and a archer from the Mughal army used this opportunity to attack him. An arrow hit Hemu in the eye and although it did not kill him it had pierced the cerebral cavity enough to make him unconscious.
In any battle of this period the death of the leader meant an end of the fight, and the sight of Hemu slumped in the howdah of his famous elephant Hawai was enough to make his army turn tail. Akbar’s General, Shah Quli Khan captured the Hawai elephant with its prize occupant, and took it directly to Akbar.
Hemu was brought unconscious before Akbar and Bairam. Bairam advised Akbar to perform the holy duty of slaying the infidel and earn the Islamic holy title of ‘Ghazi’. Among much self-congratulation Akbar then severed the head of unconscious Hemu with his saber. Some historians claim that Akbar did not kill Hemu himself, but just touched the infidel’s head with his sword and his associates finished the gory ‘holy’ work. However the latter version seems inconsistent with the events that followed. After the battle Hemu’s head was sent to Kabul as a sign of victory to the ladies of Humayun’s harem, and Hemu’s torso was sent to Delhi for exposure on a gibbet.
Iskandar Khan chased the Hemu’s fleeing army and captured 1500 elephants and a large contingent. There was a bloody slaughter of those who were captured and in keeping with the custom of his ancestors Tamerlane and Chengiz Khan, Akbar had a victory pillar built with the severed heads of his fallen Hindu enemies.
Peter Mundy, an Englishman travelling Mughal empire some 75 years later (during Jahangir and Shah Jahan’s rein), found such towers were still being built.
Hemu’s wife escaped from Delhi with the treasure and although Pir Mohammad Khan’s troops chased her caravan they could not lay their hands on her or the tresure. Hemu’s aged father was captured and on refusing to accept Islam, was executed. This is the ‘glorious’ history of Akbar’s victory at the battle of Panipat.
Later on Akbar displayed his "chivalry" once again when he ordered the cold blooded slaughter of thirty thousand Rajput soldiers who had surrendered to him after the battle of Chittod.
How the Ahom (Assamese) General Lachit Borphukan annihilated the Muslim Mughal army at the battle of Saraighat on the Banks of the Bramhaputra river
The Muslims had made many attempts from the time of Mohammed Bin Tughlak to swallow Assam. But the Ahom kings of Assam stoutly and shrewdly defeated each Muslim incursion in to Assam. Finally the Mughals during the reign of Aurangzeb attacked Assam with a huge force. The shrewd Assamese king laid a trap for the Muslim army at a place named Sariaghat on the Bramhaputra river.
The Battle of Saraighat was fought in 1671 between the Mughals (led by the renegade Rajput Hindu traitor Kachwaha king Raja Ramsingh I), and the Ahoms (led by Lachit Borphukan, the Ahom governor of Guwahati) on the Brahmaputra river at Saraighat near Guwahati. Although considered to be the weaker force, the Ahom army defeated the Mughal by using a combination of guerrilla tactics, psychological warfare and military intelligence.
In a surprise night attack, Lachit Barphukan dramatically captured the Mughal post in north Guwahati and, later, their fort in south Guwahati. The present day Kamrup Deputy Commissioner’s bungalow is now situated on this site. The greatest threat to Lachit’s army were the many Mughal cannons. In another secret mission executed the night before battle the cannons were disabled by Bagh Hazarika, a subordinate of Lachit’s, During the night, Hazarika poured water into the cannons’ barrels, soaking their gunpowder. With the Mughal cannons disabled, the Ahoms bombarded the Guwahati fort with their cannons. After a heavy cannonade and then a determined charge, the Mughals were defeated and the fort captured. After this the Mughals abandoned Guwahati.
Now Lachit Barphukan anticipated a larger retaliatory attack by the Mughals and he started arranging defenses, obstacles and garhs (earthen walls) around Guwahati, relying upon the hillocks around Guwahati and the Brahmaputra River as natural barriers against an invading army. Lachit was thorough and ruthless in preparing for the defense. He even beheaded his own uncle for neglecting his duty. When Lachit asked his uncle why the work was not progressing as expected, his uncle complained of boredom. Lachit in a fit of fury cut off his uncle’s head and said "my uncle is not greater than my country."
The Mughals struck back in March 1679. The Mughal commander-in-chief of the advancing Mughal army had at his disposal 30,000 infantry, 15,000 archers, 18,000 Turkish cavalry, 5,000 gunners, more than 1000 cannons and a large flotilla of boats. Portuguese and other European sailors were employed to man the fleet. These forces moved up the Brahmaputra from Dhaka to Guwahati. Lachit’s spies kept him informed of the progress of the Muslim advance. The Mughals laid siege to Guwahati that lasted for more than a year.
Lachit fought from within the barriers knowing that his small cavalry would not stand against the Mughal cavalry on open ground. His guerrilla attacks against the Mughal caused them to suffer many casualties. Although the Mughals made many efforts, including one attempt to bribe Lachit with power position and money, as they had done successfully with some Rajputs, but with Lachit the Mughals failed to tempt him to betray his country. Every attempt to bribe him was replied with scorn. In spite of repeated desperate attempts they failed to defeat Lachit and capture Guwahati.
But now the Ahom king, however, became impatient and ordered Lachit to attack the Mughals on open ground. Lachit reluctantly obeyed this command, and attacked the Mughal army in Allaboi. After some initial success, in which the Ahoms captured the local Mughal Commander, Mir Nawab, the Ahoms drew the full force of Mughal cavalry.
The Ahom army was decimated by the Mughal cavalry on the open plain losing some 10,000 troops. Lachit had taken the precaution of digging a line of defense at the rear of his advancing columns, to which they could fall back to if forced to do so. In doing so, he managed to save the remainder of his forces and retreat into his prepared defenses.
The Mughal could not penetrate these defenses and ultimately launched a massive naval assault on the river at Saraighat. They had large boats, some carrying as many as sixteen cannons. The Ahom soldiers were demoralised after their losses at Allaboi and their commander-in-chief, Lachit Borphukan, was seriously ill. At the sight of the massive Mughal fleet, they began to lose their will to fight, and some units commenced retreat.
Lachit had been observing this development from his deathbed. Despite having a high fever, he had himself carried to a boat and, along with seven other boats, advanced headlong against the Mughal fleet. His bold advance inspired his retreating army to rally behind him. A desperate battle ensued on the Brahmaputra. The Ahoms in their small boats outmaneuvered the larger, more sluggish Mughal boats, and the river became littered with clashing boats and drowning soldiers.
The Mughals were decisively defeated and they were finally forced to retreat from Guwahati, and also from other Ahom territory, up to Manas River. Thus ended the Battle of Saraighat, giving Lachit Barphukan the legendary fame in Assam. This battle is remembered as a glorious Ahom victory, despite seemingly insurmountable odds.
Lachit Borphukan, like Lord Nelson, died in the lap of victory; and the battle of Saraighat was Assam’s Trafalgar.
The unsuccessful Muslim attack on Nepal and Tibet
Less is known of the Muslim attack on Nepal and Tibet. Flushed with his easy successes in India, Mohammad bin Tughlak, the mad Muslim ruler of Delhi decided to conquer the Hindu kingdom of Nepal and the Buddhist domains of Tibet and convert the Gurkhas and Tibetians to Islam. Till then the Gurkhas had remained out of the path of the Muslim aggression.
But in 1402, Mohammed bin Tughlak launched the first Muslim attack into the Himalayas. The Nepalese King knew the fate of the Hindu rajas of the plains and refused to meet the Muslim army at the border of his kingdom in the Nepalese Terai (plains).
The shrewd Nepalese king withdrew his army into the snowy fastness of the Himalayas and joined forced with the king of Tibet who had sent down his reinforcements, as Tughlak had made clear his aim was to overrun Tibet after the conquest of Nepal.
The Muslim army marched through deserted Nepalese villages and burnt out fields towards the snowy upper reaches of the Himalayas where not a blade of grass grew. The huge Muslim host was now fatigued but marched on, on the orders of Mohammed bin Tughlak, whose aim was to capture Kastha-Madapam (Kathmandu) and Lhasha.
As the Muslim army went deeper into the Himalayas apart from the biting cold and the harsh terrain, they also had to march in small units through different valleys. The much smaller joint Nepalese Tibetean forces lay in wait for the Muslim army at a narrow pass beyond Pokhra. In the snow clad barren valley the battle was joined and the hardened Gurkhas mercilessly cut down the wearied Muslim troops in the harsh snowy and barren terrain. The Muslim army was slaughtered to a man, and only a few stragglers returned to the plains to tell the story of this ignominious defeat.
After this massacre, no Muslim ruler was foolhardy enough to attack Nepal. And so Nepal remained a Hindu kingdom along with Assam and Orissa, all through the seven hundred years of Muslim tyranny over Northern India. It is this ruthless victory that preserved the Hindu character of Nepal.
Had the Muslims overrun Nepal, they would have forcibly converted the Gurkhas to Islam and today we would have seen Muslim Gurkhas wielding their Khukhris (knives) to terrorize the remaining Hindus in Nepal to convert to Islam and indulge in terror attacks against India. The temples of Pashupatinath, Bhaktapur, Patan and Hanuman Dhokha would have been converted into mosques as have been those at Kashi, Ayodhya, Mathura and innumerable other places.
But mercifully because of the foresight of the Nepalese kings into the fatal nature of the Muslim threat and the slaughter of the Muslims aggressors, Nepal today has remained a Hindu majority region.
The Punjabi Hindu resistance to Islam is called Sikhism
In one North Indian province, Punjab, the Hindus resisted Islam by removing the deficiencies from their own religion, and then first matching and finally outmatching the ruthlessness of their Muslim tormentors. The Sikhs considered themselves neither Hindus nor Mussalmaans. But in the eyes of the Mughal rulers, the followers of the Gurus were Hindus who tried to undermine Mughal sovereignty. For this the Sikhs were violently repressed. In the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jehangir, Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the first Guru to be martyred (at the hand of the Mughal oppressors). Jehangir sentenced Guruji to be beheaded after being tormented for days. Burning hot sand was poured on his bare body. After being subjected to such inhuman torture, Guruji we are told, expressed a desire as his last wish, to have a bath in the Ravi river before being beheaded. Guru Arjan Dev Ji who had suffered brutally at the hands of his Mughal tormentors, went into the river till his head disappeared into the swirling currents of the Ravi – never to return. Thus he became the first Sikh Guru to lay down his life due to Mughal oppression.
It was under the later Gurus that Sikhism came to appear as the militant wing of the Hindu community. The idea of Sikhs being defenders of Hinduism was strengthened during the tenure of the 9th and 10th Gurus. Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh. During the tenure of these two Gurus the nature of the Sikh religion underwent a fundamental change. And from being a sect with ascetic and pacifist ideals, the Sikhs were transformed into an aggressive military theocracy.
Militarization of the Sikhs due to Mughal Oppression.
The changes brought about by Guru Gobind Singh were so fundamental that they represented a new phase in the history of Sikhism. It is worth recalling the circumstances that led to this change. Understanding this phase of Sikh history is all the more important as it led to the formation of Sikhism as we know it today.
This phase of the Sikh religion was a direct result of Mughal oppression. The Mughal rulers had no love for a sect that originated from among the Kafirs (Hindus) but had adapted Islamic ideas like monotheism rejection of idol worship, military theocracy and who with the indigenous Hindu terminology of expression tried to secure a following also among the adherents of Islam. This was unbearable to the Mughals who looked upon the Sikhs as wanting to usurp the platform of Islam and stall the process of converting Hindus (in Punjab) to Islam.
Sikhism was in the eyes of the Mughals – a Panic Reaction of the Hindus against Islam
For the Mughals, Sikhism represented a panic reaction from within the Hindu community to salvage its status as non-muslim by accepting the positive ideals of Islam like rejection of idol worship, casteism and ritualism of its Hindu parent religion and infusing militancy into the new Hindu converts to Sikhism. In the eyes of the Mughal rulers, the Sikh reform was detrimental to the conversion of the Hindus to Islam; and the militancy of the Sikhs was harmful to the security of the Mughal empire. Hence the bitter oppression of the Sikhs by the Mughals which was even more severe than the oppression of the Hindus in general.
During the reign of Aurangzeb the severest wave of oppression was unleashed on Non-Muslims with a view to Islamize the country. As the Mughal oppression found tough resistance from the Sikhs they were the favourite target for the Mughals. Here the story of Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh needs to be
The Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur
During the reign of Aurangzeb Guru Tegh Bahadur who was the then Guru of the Sikhs was approached by a group of Hindu Pandits from Kashmir with a plea for protection from Mughal oppression. True to the spirit of his faith the Guru decided to approach the fanatical Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself for a redress of the grievances. Unfortunately at the Mughal court he received abuses and threats. He was told to accept Islam at the pain of death. To prove his word the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. tourtured to death the members of the Guru’s entourage one after the other. But Guru Tegh Bahadur did not lose his composure and calmly demanded a halt to the repressive policies. Wanting to teach a lesson to the obstinate Guru and to set an example to his followers the emperor ordered that the Guru to be beheaded. Thus after Guru Arjan Dev, Tegh Bahadur was the second Sikh Guru to meet a violent death at the hands of the Mughals. But after his execution some of his followers managed to sneak out the Guru’s severed head from Delhi and carried it to Anandpur. At the place where the Gurus severed head was cremated, a Gurudwara was erected to commemorate this sacrifice undertaken in defence of the Dharma. This place is known to us today as the Anandpur Saheb Gurudwara.
The Khalsa Panth of Guru Gobind Singh Ji
When Guru Tegh Bahadur was martyred, his son Gobindrai, who later became Guru Gobind Singh) was still a boy, but the events which had overtaken his father, influenced him deeply and after succeeding his father as the next Guru, he was determined to carry out the struggle against Mughal oppression. Towards this end he undertook a radical transformation of the Sikh religion. This transformation was too fundamental to be termed as a reform and it virtually amounted to the establishment of a new religious order. And though he transformation differentiated the subsequent Sikhism (the Khalsa Panth from the earlier one; more in temporal and worldly aspects rather than in spiritual matters, it led to the first major split among the Sikhs.
The five Ks (Kakkars)
The transformation of Sikhism as the Khalsa Panth was formally launched by Guru Gobind Singh Ji on Baishakhi (New year) day in the year 1699. The new community was termed the Khalsa Panth or the ‘Pure Sect’ as its followers were required to be far more strict in observing the tenets of their reformed faith. The followers of the Khalsa were required to observe five visible symbols of membership. These signs as we know were: 1) Unshorn Hair (Kesha), 2) A curved dagger (Kirpan), 3) A comb (Kangva), 4) A steel bangle (Kada), 5) A pair of shorts (Kachha). All members of the Khalsa were required to suffix their name with the term ‘Singh’ meaning ‘lion’. Guru Gobind Singh’s aim in forming the Khalsa Panth was to build up a militarized community which could resist Mughal oppression. An anecdote about his forming of the Khalsa army is worth recalling.
The Formation of the Khalsa Army
Once the Guru was delivering an inspiring speech before a group of Sikh youths on the necessity for every youth in the community to be ready to sacrifice everything he had including his life for the cause of his faith. The response of the youths was enthusiastic and many expressed their readiness to get enrolled in the Khalsa Panth. But the Guru’ s standards of integrity were very high and he said that he would require the heads of those who wanted to join the Khalsa. The Guru pulled out his sword and beckoned the enthusiastic youths to come forward and lay down their lives there and then.
The youths were dumbfounded and for some moments nobody volunteered to sacrifice his life, while the Guru waited with his unsheathed sword in hand. Finally one of the youths turned up and offered his head to the Guru saying that his head already belonged to the Guru and the Guru may have it if he wanted. The Guru caught hold of the youth and led him inside the sacrificial tent that had been erected for the occasion. After sometime there was a piercing scream form the youth and the Guru emerged from the tent and in his hand was a blood-stained sword. The Guru now demanded another head.
His audience was benumbed at this evident gruesome scene and many devotees fled the place in disgust saying that the Guru had gone mad! But out of the few remaining youths another one offered his head to the Guru. After some time a few select youths had offered their heads to their Guru and has been "sacrificed" by the Guru, while many others had fled carrying with them the memory of a ghastly episode.
But those who fled were never to learn the secret of what happened to those brave youths, five in number, who had offered their heads to the Guru and who were the first Panj Pyaras. Contrary to the impression that he created, after leading every youth into the tent, the Guru embraced each of them and installed them as his select soldiers who were to form the Khalsa army. This army was the bravest that could be had as it was made up of men who had proved that they would lay down their lives to serve their Guru and the Panth in their struggle with the Mughal oppressors.
The Fierce Commitment to Overthrow Mughal Oppression
There is also a less known tradition which Guru Ji is said to have shared orally with the Panj Pyaras in the tent after they had offered him their heads. After baptising them as the first 5 members of the the Khalsa "Pure" Panth Guru Ji decided to have the Panj Pyaras observe the 5 kakkars which included wearing a Kada (signifying a bangle) – as a sign of not yet having fulfilled a commitment of overthrowing the Mughal tormentors who then ruled Punjab(and the rest of India). The Kada was meant to instill a compelling sense of commitment in them to defeat their Mughal tormentors. This aspect of the kada signifying womanhood and shame was later not mentioned for obvious reasons and is not reflected in the Sikh legend. It was this act on part of Guru Ji that spurred on his followers to avenge their oppression by the Muslims and finally led to their successes under Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1799.
(This tradition of fighting Delhi was quoted again by the terrorists during the anti-Indian insurgency of the 1980s. But then the rulers of Delhi were different in 1980 from those in 1699!)
Sahejdharis and Keshadharis
Those members of the Sikh Panth (sect) who observed the five visible signs, and also used the suffix "Singh" (lion) with their names, imbibed the fighting spirit inculcated by Guru Gobind Singh. They came to be known as Keshadharis (wearers of unshorn hair) and those Sikhs (i.e. virtually all the remaining people of Punjab) who revered the Gurus but did not accept the 5 Kakkars laid down by Guru Gobind Singh Ji and did not use the suffix "Singh" were called Sahejdharis (casual devotees), or plainly speaking – Punjabis (i.e. Punjabi Hindus).
The Sahejdharis were also followers of the Gurus, though they did not belong to the Khalsa Panth. And despite this difference, there did not exist a feeling of belonging to different sects among the two sects of the followers of the Gurus till recent times.
Banda Bairagi personifies the ethos of Punjab. His story signifies the oneness of the Sahjedharis and the Keshadharis. Banda Bairagi was born into a Sahejdhari family. He was a devout person from his childhood. Immense love for the Guru attracted him to Guru Govind Singh Ji. In his youth, Banda Bairagi became a Keshadhari and was baptised as Banda Singh Bahadur by Guru Ji. Banda Singh Bahadur carried on a relentless fight against the Muslims. After a stormy life, full of daring adventures, he died after being captured by the Muslims and being subjected to inhuman torture where he was forced to swallow the body parts of his sons, who were murdered in front of him. Banda died a heroic death fighting the Mughal (Muslim) Oppressors. His name has become legendary in Punjabi folklore.
In his youth, Banda Bairagi became a Keshadhari and was baptised as Banda Singh Bahadur by Guru Ji. Banda Singh Bahadur carried on a relentless fight against the Muslims. After a stormy life, full of daring adventures, he died after being captured by the Muslims and being subjected to inhuman torture where he was forced to swallow the body parts of his sons, who were murdered in front of him. Banda died a heroic death fighting the Mughal (Muslim) Oppressors.
The Political History of the Sikhs
The later history of the Sikhs is more a political history rather than religious and centers around the establishment of a sovereign kingdom by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Here let us digress into the politico-military situation in North India in the mid 18th century.
The Persian Invasion of 1740 by Nadir Shah
The immediate impetus for the establishment of the Sikh kingdom came from the invasion of North India by Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) the ruler of Afghanistan in 1759/61. On his way to Delhi, Ahmed Shah burnt down the Harmindar Saheb Gurudwara at Amritsar. for 2 years and was planning to settle in India forever, when he was challenged by the Marathas. The Marathas who then were on their ascendancy in North India had since the first Persian-Afghan invasion by Nadir Shah, the king of Persia in 1740, established themselves as a dominant power in Northern India. The 20 years from 1740 to 1760 saw a see-saw battle between the Afghans and the Marathas for the domination of North India.
With the defeat of Mohammed Shah, the Moghul Emperor in 1740 by Nadir Shah (in whose army Ahmed Shah Abdali was a general), the Mughal power steadily declined and its place was usurped by the Rohillas who were led by an ambitious and ruthless chieftain named Najib Khan. Najib’s ambition was to supplant the Moghal Emperor and crown himself as the ruler of India by capturing Delhi.
The Rise of the Marathas in Punjab
But the growing power of the Marathas in their northward expansion, stood between Najib and his ambition. To overcome the Marathas, in 1755, Najib invited Ahmed Shah Abdali from Afghanistan to help him in defeating the Marathas and crown himself the ruler of India. In this, he was thwarted by the Marathas who decisively defeated the Rohillas and Afghans near Delhi in 1756. The defeat was so decisive that Najib Khan surrendered to the Marathas and became their prisoner. The Maratha forces were led by Shrimant Raghunath Rao and Malhar Rao Holkar.
After defeating the Afghan-Rohilla forces, the Marathas pursued the Afghans into the Punjab upto the Khyber pass. The last frontier of the Marathas was at Attock in today’s NWFP (or Paktoonistan) on the Afghan border. Thus after nearly 800 after the last Punjabi King Tirlochan Pal Shahi had been defeated by Mahmud of Ghazi in 1020 C.E. did that part of India come under Indian rule in 1756 due to the liberation of Punjab by the Marathas.
Meanwhile with machinations and trickery, Najib Khan won over Malhar Rao Holkar and secured his release. On his release Najib started to undermine the Marathas once again and treacherously killed Dattaji Shinde (eldest brother of Mahadji Shinde) . Najib continued to battle the Shindes in 1757-58 and with his newly found confidence again invited Ahmed Shah Abdali to invade India.
The 3rd Battle of Panipat – 1761
Abdali’s second invasion was launched in 1759. When Abdali launched his second invasion in 1759 the Marathas who after their successes in 1756 had been hibernating in Maharastra and Central India again woke up and in alliance with the Jat King Suraj Mal of Bharatpur formed an alliance. This alliance led by Shrimant Sadshiv Rao Bhau and Shrimant Vishwas Rao (the Peshwa Shrimant Balaji Baji Rao’s son) won spectacular victories and captured Delhi and Kunjapura (where the Afghan treasury and armoury was located).
"All Mohammedans of India will remain with Abdali. Courtiers of Mughals are involved in conspiracy. You must not trust them, yet you must listen to them."
– Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal’s visionary advice to the Marathas before the fateful battle of Panipat.
Here the alliance developed cracks due to the Maratha insistence on pursing a head on confrontation with Abdali, instead of following the Jat advice to wage Guerilla warfare against Abdali, destroy Abdali’s rear, and deny him sustenance, and supplies from the Muslim Rohillas. Suraj Mal advised the Marathas to put their women, courtiers, retainers, in a fort in Bharatpur, and fight `light’. But Bhau egged on by the Maratha womenfolk who wanted to do sight seeing of Kurukshetra (site of the famous Mahabharat war) , foolishly refused this advice.
Surajmal’s speech is reproduced below:
The Council appealed to Sujan Singh (Maharaja Suraj Mal) to express his views. He stated:
"Honourable Chairman! The principality of our country is in the hands of Peshwa in these days. The Mughals are nominal emperors. Their court has become as arena of clowns and jokers. This time you come here as a leader of Maharastra Mandal sent by Peshwa. You have passeda distance of thousands of miles to save the country and religion.
All our wealth and lives are dedicated to you. Do not fear Abdali. We stand for the prestige of Peshwa. These days Peshwa is like a sheet (Chadar) to cover the Hindu faith. You are his brother and you have a keen desire to strengthen India. You are our representative. We, on behalf of all the Hindus of India, offer you respect equal to the Peshwa. In the first instance you are a Brahmin and besides you are a crown of Hindus. We shall sacrifice our everything on you. My 25,000 soldiers, 60 cannons and all the army of Sarv-Khap panchayat of Haryana will be in your service. Think a little over my views, and the rest is up to you to accept it or not. You are elder and elders may only be beseeched. My suggestions are as under:
1. Before the battle provisions should be accumulated in a safe place like Brij or Bharatpur.
2. To accompany ladies in the battles our strength will be divided. They should therefore be kept in the fort of Deeg.
3. Establish the centre for heavy weapons and other articles at a distant place, and fight the battle with guerilla strategy.
4. Involve Abdali’s army in a battle till summer falls, and in the summer make a vigorous attack
5. Do not harm a place of Mohammedan worship. Call a council in the court and choose a Mughal Prince as your chief and thus gain their sympathy. Do not touch precious articles kept in the fort so the Mohammedan may not use this opportunity to make propaganda against us. Invite as many Chiefs as possible to join you and no divide should occur in the organization.
6. All Mohammedans of India will remain with Abdali. Courtiers of Mughals are involved in conspiracy. You must not trust them, yet you must listen to them.
7. It is my special appeal to your chief commandant Ibrahim Gardi that he should consult me for war strategy. For five to six months, guerilla attacks should be only be made, that too only now and then. Keep your contact with Delhi. 8. The heavy loss in the battle of Kunjpura has familiarized Abdali of our power. For some time Abdali had been collecting provisions and troops from the Rohilla State. So the battle is to be fought decisively. Victory or loss is in the hand of God."
But the refusal of Sadashiv Rao Bhau to accept Suraj Mal’s sagacious advice ultimately split the alliance and Suraj Mal withdrew from the alliance. The Marathas consequently marched upto Panipat, but instead of continuing their attacks to completely defeat the partly defeated Abdali and Najib Khan, they stayed put at Panipat, blocking the way of the Afghans back to Afghanistan. Seeing their way back to their homeland blocked, the Afghans now became restless. They in turn, decided to block the way of the Marathas back into the Deccan.
Stand-off for one year
This stand-off continued for one whole year from the 14th of January 1760 up to the 14th of January 1761. This led to the fall in the morale of the stranded Marathas and ultimatley led to their defeat at Panipat. The Marathi term "Sankrant Kosalali" meaing "Sankranth has befallen us" comes from this event. During this stand-off the Afghans cut-off all supplies to the huge Maratha army. The Afghans with Najib Khan meanwhile also recaptured Delhi and Kunjpura. On the decisive day of 14th January 1761 (Makar Sankranti), the Marathas decided to break-through the Afghan blockade and re-enter Deccan. The disastrous battle saw about one hundred thousand Maratha troops being slaughtered in a matter of eight hours. But the Afghans too suffered heavy losses and decided enough was enough and went back to Afghanistan never to return to India.
Abdali never returned to India after this stormy campaign, but his decscendants did make unsuccessful attempts to do so. The invasion of Abdali’s grandson (Sher Shah) was one such attempt. This time the invader was challenged by the Sikhs. Sher Shah could not proceed beyond Lahore due to the challenge of the Sarbat Khalsa. Thus, this last of the Muslim invasions also turned out to be the only Muslim invasion of India ever to be defeated by the people of Punjab.
Maharaja Ranjeet Singh Ji and the Rise of the first Sikh Kingdom
However, during this period the Sikhs were still unorganised and in the period after the defeat of the Marathas and the withdrawal of the Afghans there existed a power vacuum in North India in the period 1761-1799. It was this vacuum that was filled up by the rising Sikh power under the dynamic leadership of Maharaja Shri Ranjit Singh Ji.
Maharaj Ranjeet Singh Ji was born in 1780 and witnessed these turbulent times in Punjab’s history. By 1799, Maharaja Ranjeet Singh had started his attempt to unify the different Sikh Misls, which was to grow into a powerful Sikh Kingdom in the early decades of the 19th century and remained a powerful force till Maharaja Ranjeet Singh’s death in 1839.
The Sikh kingdom was also the last of the Indian kingdoms that held out against the British (More of this later)
When the history of Maratha-Afghan warfare was being enacted, the Sikhs in Punjab had formed themselves into Misls (Local Armed Battalions). Though they did not actively participate in helping the Marathas against the Afghans, they nursed a grievance against the Rohillas and Afghans.
Jussa Singh Ahluwalia
Jussa Singh Ahluwalia was a leader of the Alhuwalia Misl prior to Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s ascent. Before Maharaja Ranjeet Singh’s Asendency the Sikhs had formed themselves into various misls which were under control of various tracts of land of the Punjab. Some of these Misls refused to get themselves integrated into the Sikh Army formed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji. These rebellious Misls were eventually overcome and integrated into the Sikh army by Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji.
Hari Singh Nallua
On the departure of the Afghans, the Sikhs reasserted themselves in the Punjab and Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji who was the leader of the Gujranwala Misl – which was one of the most powerful Misl, formed a kingdom with its capital at Lahore in today’s West Punjab in Pakistan. His kingdom stretched beyond the Hindu Kush into Afghanistan. Able generals like Hari Singh Nallua helped in pushing the frontiers of the Sikh kingdom into Afghanistan.
It was a tradition in those days for the eldest son of every family from Punjab to join the army (of the Maharaja) by observing the 5 Kakkars. Brave generals like Hari Singh Nallua took the Sikh armies deep into Afghanistan and they are reputed to have brought back the original Gates of the Somnath Temple which had been desecrated by Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century. The gates had been carried off by Mahmud to Afghanistan and had remained there ever since. Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji retrieved them and brought them back to India.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji’s reign marked the consolidation of Indian sovereignty in Punjab after first Muslim invasions eight hundred years before in 1020. The Marathas had broken the continuous Muslim occupation of Punjab by liberating it in 1756 and Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji consolidated Indian rule in Punjab a few years later.
The kingdom established by Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji successfully resisted the Afghans, and Rohillas and also out-matched the new imperialist power of the British successfully till Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was alive. At his death, the Maharaja had warned about the impending coming of the British.
(On his death-bed he is said to have expressed a desire to offer his most precious possession to the Jagannath Puri temple at Orissa. He was asked by the chief Mahant (priest) of the Jagannath Puri temple as to what he considered most precious. In reply Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji is said to have told the Mahant that as a Keshadhari follower of the Guru, his unshorn hair was most precious to him and he wanted to donate that to the temple along with umpteen gold and jewellery.)
It was during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji that the Harmindar Saheb Gurudwara at Amritsar which had been burnt down by Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1760, was repaired and was completely plated with gold and from then onwards it came to be known as the Golden Temple.
Such was Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji who consolidated Indian rule in India’s frontier state which had been earlier liberated by the Marathas. Unfortunately the Marathas could not retain their hold over the liberated areas, many of which were re-occupied by the Rohillas and Afghans after a few years. But the rise of the Sikh power ensured that a large part of the Maratha achievements of rolling back alien rule could be consolidated and expanded. Even today the Sikhs continue to form an important element of troops in the Indian army and are an effective bulwark in the fight against Muslim terorism that afflicts India especially so in Kashmir.
How the Maratha Hindus outmatched the Muslims at their own game from 1650 onwards
Now we move to the South where the Marathas were the first who crossed the Muslim invader Malik Kafur’s path, when he invaded Central India in 1314 C.E. They were then led by the last scion of the Yadava dynasty – Ramdev Rai Yadava who ruled from Devagiri (today’s Daulatabad, near Sambhajinagar aka Aurangbad). In their first clash with the Muslims; the Marathas lost to the invaders and accepted the status of being vassals and mercenaries of their tyrannical Muslim masters. Shivaji’s mother, Jijabai was a direct descendant of the erstwhile Yadav royal family of Devagiri. She seems to have nursed deep within her mind the idea of recovering independence from Muslim rule which her Yadav forebears had lost in the year 1318. Shivaji grew up with these ideas embedded into him. His childhood stories are those of playing games in which he and his friends attacked and captured forts held by the enemy. When Shivaji was seventeen, he decided to transform what were till then simply games to a reality. He and his friends encouraged by Jijabai and his Guru Dadoji Kondeo; decided to take a formal oath to free the country from the shackles of Muslim tyranny. This was done in the year 1645 in a dark cavern housing a small temple to the Hindu God Shiva (locally called Raireshwar).
Here Shivaji and his select band of teenaged Maratha friends slit their thumbs and poured the blood oozing from it on the Shiva-linga (Phallus representing the Lord Shiva). By this act they declared a blood-feud against Mughal tyranny. This was the beginning of a long and arduous Maratha-Mughal struggle that went on for the next century and a half to culminate in the defeat of the Mughals and their replacement by the Marathas as the dominant power in India when the British came into the scene.
The Hindu ruler Shivaji was the first who turned back the tide of the Muslims from India. The Maratha Hindus whom Shivaji organized captured Delhi from the Muslims in 1720. In Shivaji’s life, the source of his inspiration was his mother Jijabai.
When Shivaji started his military career by capturing the fortress of Torana, it sent shockwaves in the Adilshshi court at Bijapur. Here was a local Hindu chieftain, daring to challenge the might of a Muslim ruler. The retribution was swift and Adil Shah sent in his most fearsome general named Afzal Khan to bring back Shivaji dead or alive to Bijapur. Afzal Khan who was reputed to be more than six feet tall and of a real massive built, set on his mission and in order to lure Shivaji down into the plains, he destroyed the Hindu temples at Tuljapur, Pandharpur and Shikhar Shenganapur.
This ploy failed to work and Shivaji stuck to his Hill fastness in the Sahyadris. Shivaji even sent a letter to Afzal Khan praising the legendary strength of Afzal Khan’s powerful arms and his reputed fearlessness. Shivaji addressed him as his uncle and said that he was afraid to come down to meet Afzal Khan. Shivaji asked him to come up into the hills to meet him and on condition that Afzal Khan came with not more than few select soldiers. The proud Khan felt that the Dekkhan-Ka-Chuha (Rat of the Deccan as the Muslims scornfully addressed Shivaji) had really chickened out.
Shivaji’s ensnaring and slaying of Afzal Khan proved that the Hindu’s had finally come of age in turning against the Muslims their tricks of subterfuge
Before inviting Afzal Khan up to the fort in the densely forested ranges, Shivaji had gone down to the plains in the guise of a fruit vendor with a basket of fruits on his head. This ploy was done so that Shivaji could have a good look at Afzal Khan’s face when the Khan traveled on horseback. No other person could have an excuse to look up to the Khan’s eyes. But a fruit vendor would have to look up to ask if the Khan wanted fruits. This way Shivaji made sure he knew who was the real Khan, as he knew that for meeting enemies, the Muslims sent imposters whenever they sensed that they would be betrayed at the meeting. But this way Shivaji ensured that he knew that it was the Khan himself who had come to meet him and not an imposter in his place.
This action of Shivaji clearly indicated that he had made plans for slaying Khan when the two met at the Fort. Afzal Khan agreed to go up the hills at Pratapgad Fort to meet his nemesis. When the meeting took place, Shivaji had come in full armor, that was hidden beneath his thick satin robes, while Afzal had no such protection. When they came face to face Afzal Khan embraced Shivaji and with his formidable enemy (Afzal Khan was about six feet tall while Shivaji was less than five feet) in his embrace, Shivaji suddenly slipped his the ‘Wagh Nakh’ into the Khan’s abdomen. The ‘Wagh Nakh’ (literally tiger’s claws) are a sharp weapon resembling tiger claws that could be hidden in the grip of one’s fist. In addition, he had the Bichhwa – a curved dagger hidden in the pocket of his waistcoat with which he repeatedly stabbed the unprepared Khan. When Khan realized that he had been betrayed he bellowed "Dagaa, Dagaa" "I have been betrayed" and called for his bodyguard Syed Banda to come to his rescue. The fact that the Khan had not attacked Shivaji is lent credence by the fact the he yelled out "I have been betrayed". Had he attack Shivaji first, then there was no question of his yelling out that he had been betrayed.
After Shivaji had wounded him, the Khan then tried to attack Shivaji in self-defence by using his own dagger, and tried to stab Shivaji. But Afzal’s dagger could not plunge into Shivaji Maharaj due to the protective armor which Shivaji was wearing, Afzal tried to throttle him. But the wily Maratha was more than prepared for this as he had come down not only with full armor that was hidden by his thick satin robes, but all his palanquin bearers were hardened Maratha warriors who had been armed to the teeth with their weapons hidden in their clothes and turbans.
When Syed Banda, also a burly Muslim was about to strike Shivaji with his sword, Shivaji’s bodyguard Jiva Mahalya struck off Banda’s upraised arm in the air itself. After this commotion, the bleeding Khan tried to make good his escape and rushed into his palanquin. As the palanquin bearers set off with the fleeing Khan, Santaji Kawji, another of Shivaji’s select warriors cut-off the feet of the bearers and Khans’ palanquin, with its load of Afzal fell to the ground. Santaji Kawji, then finished off the task of sending Khan to his final resting place. Khan’s army which was waiting in the valley was ruthlessly massacred by the Marathas who were hiding behind every crevice and bush in the densely wooded jungles around the Pratapgad fort. At the place where this encounter took place on 10th November 1659 between Shivaji Maharaj and the Khan, there stands today a Kabar (grave) erected by Shivaji for the departed Khan’s soul to rest in peace. Thus for once a Hindu had outwitted a Muslim who was twice as strong and was also a towering giant. The pigeons of Muslim subterfuge had come home to roost and with a vengeance too.
Thus the Shivaji’s ensnaring and slaying of Afzal Khan proved that the Hindus had finally come of age in learning Muslim tricks of subterfuge. Tricks that were unheard of in ancient Hindu India and which would have been looked down upon according to the ancient Hindu rules of warfare. Shivaji’s attack on Afzal was a pre-planned one, and for which he used the Muslim psychology of killing their enemies, even if there was no immediate provocation. Unfortunately not many Hindu later followed this illustrious example of Shivaji, and so today India remains condemned to face the Muslim threat, which is raising its ugly head once again.
Another example of Hindus learning subterfuge from the Muslims – Shivaji’s outsmarting another Muslim general Shaista Khan
The next Muslim Khan to come down ‘literally’ before Shivaji was Shaista Khan. On hearing Shivaji’s depredations, Aurangzeb was furious and wanted to desperately crush this infidel upstart. He sent his uncle maternal Shaista Khan with a large and powerful army to checkmate Shivaji. But even this time the wily Maratha proved that brain was stronger than the brawn. Shaista Khan came into Maharashtra and started devastating towns, villages fields, temples, forts and everything that came in his path.
To provoke Shivaji, Shaista Khan established his camp in Shivaji’s home in Pune called Lal-Mahal. And to top it up, he put up his Harem in Shivaji’s Devghar (prayer room). He bided his time for many months and one on fine day (night), he with a select band of Maratha Samurais, sneaked into Pune and into the Lal-Mahal. He tracked down the sleeping Khan to his bed. The Khan sensing that his time was up tried jumping out of the window. At that point Shivaji cut off the Khan’s fingers with which he was holding on to the window sill.
When the Khan’s wife’s pleading before Shivaji to spare her husband’s life as she considered Shivaji to be her brother (sic). And so killing her husband would mean making her a widow, Shivaji spared the Khan’s life. This was a mistake for which Shivaji was to pay dearly later. Shivaji made good his escape from the Khan’s lair, but not before the treacherous Khan ordered his troops to give chase and try to capture the fleeing Shivaji. Here too Shivaji had tied burning torches to the horns of a herd of cows and bulls and with bells jangling making a ruckus like swords clashing. So instead of pursuing Shivaji who escaped into the night, the Muslim army went in the direction of this cows and bulls which they though to be the Maratha army that Shivaji had brought out. But when they reached the cows and bulls, they were flustered when they realized the trick played on them by the shrewd Hindu. The Khan then, decided that enough was enough and returned to Delhi – without his fingers. This happened in April 1663.
Shivaji, the Hindu (Maratha) king led the fierce and smart Hindu counter-attack that was to ultimately break the back of the Muslims in India and liberate the country from Muslim tyranny.
The Hindu counterattack had now begun in earnest. The Marathas after Shivaji managed to reach Delhi in 1720 and by 1756, they had occupied the whole of Punjab to reach the border of Afghanistan. But after Shivaji, there were very few Maratha leaders who realized the depth of the Muslim threat. There were some like Mahadji Scindia, but they were very few. The later Marathas under their Prime Ministers called Peshwa (who came from the crafty Hindu priestly class), opened negotiations with the Mughal (Muslim) King at Delhi and fought battles on his behalf against other Muslims like Nadir the King of Persia and Ahmed Khan Abdali, the ruler of Afghanistan. This was a disastrous policy as the Maratha Hindus became a tool in the hands of the Muslims and suffered many defeats, the most disastrous one being at Panipat in 1761 at the hand of the Afghan invader Ahmed Khan Abdali.
But where the Marathas stopped, the bearded and turbaned Sikhs took over and they carried the saffron flag of India into Afghanistan and planted it at Kabul in the year 1820. A city which the Hindus had lost in the year 980 when Sabuktgin had treacherously defeated Jayapal Shahiya, the last Hindu king of Kabul(then called Kubha).
Why the Marathas and the Sikhs failed to completely defeat the Muslims
After liberating large tracts of the country from Muslim rule, neither the Marathas nor the Sikhs follow the illustrious example of the Spanish Reconquistadors of reconverting the Muslims to their original faith (Hinduism in this context). It was only because of the three alternatives of re-embracing Christianity, leaving Spain or facing death; which the Reconquistadors gave to the defeated Spanish Moriscos (Moors or Muslims), that Spain regained its original Christian character. But there was no such thing in India that was liberated by the Marathas. In fact the Marathas stupidly and shamefully accepted the Mughal (Muslim dynasty in India) court customs, their attires, their habits, except that of converting the subjugated to their religion at the pain of death. This is where the Marathas failed, to consolidate their military victories, while the Spanish Reconquistadors succeeded. The Maratha policy contrasted starkly with the coercion used by the Muslims to convert Hindus to Islam. This proved that for all their valor and skill on the battlefield, the Marathas like all other Hindus had not gauged the nature of the Muslim threat, as the Spanish Conquistadors had succeeded in doing so.
The saving grace was that the Marathas were not displaced again by the Muslims, but by the growing colonial power of the British in the year 1818. Later the Marathas disgracefully joined forces with the Muslims in 1857 to launch an uprising against the British. Fortunately this uprising failed to dislodge the British, but it marked the formal demise of Muslim power in India, as the British dethroned the last Muslim (Mughal) king of India, the wretched Bahadur Shah Zafar, a task which the Marathas should have done a century earlier when they became the dominant power in North India. But under the Macheivellian Peshwas who came from the crafty Hindu priestly class, they instead of dethroning the Mughal king, had made him a status symbol and tried to derive legitimacy for Maratha conquests in North India by asking for his seal of approval and wielding power in his name. It was both ironical and shameful that the Marathas collected taxes in North India as subsidiaries of the tottering Mughal king and not in their own right (as Shivaji Maharaj had done), although it was they who in fact controlled the Mughal king. And hence the destiny of formally ending Muslim rule in India lay with the British and not with the Marathas a task which the British thankfully did in 1857.
By comparison, British rule in India was looked upon by the Hindus as a relief from the ruthless Muslim tyranny. The departure of the British saw the Muslim clamor for the Muslim majority provinces to be cut off from India and made into a synthetic nation which they called Pakistan. This moth-eaten nation split into two parts when in 1971, the eastern wing of Pakistan split from the Western half, and formed a new nation named Bangla Desh. Today both Pakistan and Bangla Desh are at the forefront of fomenting Islamic Terrorism and trying to destabilize India with the aim of intimidating Indians to five in to Islam and become one more Terrorist nation like any one of the Muslim nations from Morocco to Indonesia. Whatever is India’s fate, this populous nation that boasts the highest number of Software Professionals and Doctors is destined to witness it.
How India is once again in danger today
If the Hindus do not learn from the Spanish Reconquistadors, on the right way to deal with the Muslim challenge India could be in deep trouble. The clock of the Islamic Jihad has started ticking once again and a swath of disctricts from Kashmir, thruogh Himachal, Uttaranchal, Northern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar up to West Bengal and Assam have become Muslim majority or ones with Muslims fast approaching majority through demographic multiplication and migration. This is a ploy of the Muslim to use demographics to kink up Pakistan with Bangla Desh. Again the proportion of lands owned by Muslims along the Sea shores across India’s vast sea shore is increasing.
The strategy is to block off all lands facing the sea, to enable nefarious activities like landing of explosives like RDx, and possibly napalm, and depleted uranium, for serial bomb blasts that were first started off by the Muslim mafia in 1883 at Mumbai in Western India. If Hindus do not wake up then they would in a few decades be pushed towards their own destruction, like the Zoroastrians of Iran who 1300 years back disgracefully surrendered to the warriors of the crescent moon!
So we see how after subjugating Persia and Byzantine the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh had to shed their blood to resist the Islamic Jihad. Coercion used by the Muslims to convert Hindus to Islam
Sir Jadunath Sarkar, the pre-eminent historian of Mughal India, wrote the following in 1920 regarding the impact of centuries of jihad and dhimmitude on the indigenous Hindus of the Indian subcontinent:
Islamic theology, therefore tells the true believer that his highest duty is to make ‘exertion (jihad) in the path of God’, by waging war against infidel lands (dar-ul-harb) till they become part of the realm of Islam (dar-ul-Islam) and their populations are converted into true believers. After conquest the entire infidel population becomes theoretically reduced to the status of slaves of the conquering army. The men taken with arms are to be slain or sold into slavery and their wives and children reduced to servitude. As for the non-combatants among the vanquished, if they are not massacred outright, – as the canon lawyer Shaf’i declares to be the Qur’anic injunction,- it is only to give them a respite till they are so wisely guided as to accept the true faith.
The conversion of the entire population to Islam and the extinction of every form of dissent is the ideal of the Muslim State. If any infidel is suffered to exist in the community, it is as a necessary evil, and for a transitional period only. Political and social disabilities must be imposed on him, and bribes offered to him from the public funds, to hasten the day of his spiritual enlightenment and the addition of his name to the roll of true believers…
A non-Muslim therefore cannot be a citizen of the State; he is a member of a depressed class; his status is a modified form of slavery. He lives under a contract (zimma, or ‘dhimma’) with the State: for the life and property grudgingly spared to him by the commander of the faithful he must undergo political and social disabilities, and pay a commutation money. In short, his continued existence in the State after the conquest of his country by the Muslims is conditional upon his person and property made subservient to the cause of Islam.
He must pay a tax for his land (kharaj), from which the early Muslims were exempt; he must pay other exactions for the maintenance of the army, in which he cannot enlist even if he offers to render personal service instead of paying the poll-tax; and he must show by humility of dress and behavior that he belongs to s subject class. No non-Muslim can wear fine dresses, ride on horseback or carry arms; he must behave respectfully and submissively to every member of the dominant sect.
After the Muslim conquest the Muslim tormentors used vile means to forcibly convert the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam
As the learned Qazi Mughis-ud-din declared, in accordance with the teachings of the books on Canon Law: ‘The Hindus are designated in the Law as ‘payers of tribute’ (kharaj-guzar); and when the revenue officer demands silver from them, they should, without question and with all humility and respect, tender gold. If the officer throws dirt intotheir mouths, they must without reluctance open their mouths wide to receive it 18. By these acts of degradation are shown the extreme obedience of the zimmi [dhimmi], the glorification of the true faith of Islam, and the abasement of false faiths. God himself orders them to be humiliated , (as He says, ’till they pay jaziya) with the hand and are humbledÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦The Prophet has commanded us to slay them, plunder them, and make them captiveÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦No other religious authority except the great Imam (Hanifa) whose faith we follow, has sanctioned the imposition of jaziya on Hindus. According to all other theologians, the rule for Hindus is ‘Either death or Islam’.
The zimmi is under certain legal disabilities with regard to testimony in law courts, protection under criminal law, and in marriageÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦he cannot erect new temples, and has to avoid any offensive publicity in the exercise of his worshipÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦Every device short of massacre in cold blood was resorted to in order to convert heathen subjects. In addition to the poll-tax and public degradation in dress and demeanor imposed on them, the non-Muslims were subjected to various hopes and fears. Rewards in the form of money and public employment were offered to apostates from Hinduism. The leaders of Hindu religion and society were systematically repressed, to deprive the sect of spiritual instruction, and their religious gatherings and processions were forbidden in order to prevent the growth of solidarity and sense of communal strength among them. No new temple was allowed to be built nor any old one to be repaired, so that the total disappearance of Hindu worship was to be merely a question of time. But even this delay, this slow operation of Time, was intolerable to many of the more fiery spirits of Islam, who tried to hasten the abolition of ‘infidelity’ by anticipating the destructive hand of Time and forcibly pulling down temples.
When a class are publicly depressed and harassed by law and executive caprice alike, they merely content themselves with dragging on an animal existence. With every generous instinct of the soul crushed out of them, the intellectual culture merely adding a keen edge to their sense of humiliation, the Hindus could not be expected to produce the utmost of which they were capable; their lot was to be hewers of wood and drawers of water to their masters, to bring grist to the fiscal mill, to develop a low cunning and flattery as the only means of saving what they could of their own labor. Amidst such social conditions, the human hand and the human spirit cannot achieve their best; the human soul cannot soar to its highest pitch. The barrenness of intellect and meanness of spirit of the Hindu upper classes are the greatest condemnation of Muslim rule in India. The Muslim political tree judged by its fruit was an utter failure.
Nearly four decades later, Antoine Fattal, whose 1958 Le Statut Legal de Musulmans en Pays’ d’Islam remains the benchmark analysis of non-Muslims (especially Christians and Jews) living under the Shari’a (i.e., Muslim Law), observed 19:
ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦Even today, the study of the jihad is part of the curriculum of all the Islamic institutes. In the universities of Al-Azhar, Nagaf, and Zaitoune, students are still taught that the holy war [jihad] is a binding prescriptive decree, pronounced against the Infidels, which will only be revoked with the end of the world… If he [the dhimmi] is tolerated, it is for reasons of a spiritual nature, since there is always the hope that he might be converted; or of a material nature, since he bears almost the whole tax burden. He has his place in society, but he is constantly reminded of his inferiority…In no way is the dhimmi the equal of the Muslim. He is marked out for social inequality and belongs to a despised caste; unequal in regard to individual rights; unequal in the Law Courts as his evidence is not admitted by any Muslim tribunal and for the same crime his punishment is greater than that imposed on Muslims…No social relationship, no fellowship is possible between Muslims and dhimmis (Hindus, Christian, Jews and other non-Muslims)
The Paradox of Hinduism while fighting Islam
The more a Hindu become hinduized, he becomes more tolerant, relegating everything to fate, considering all misfortunes (attacks by others such as Muslims) as divinely ordained.
But the more a beast (Muslim) gets beastalized (Islamized), he becomes more cruel, more practical and oriented to killing kafirs, So how do you resole this paradox, So the question is do you Hinduize the Hindus or make them atheistic and practical – Sri Krsna is the only exception who practicalized Parth at Kurukshetra, (few other examples are those of Sage Vidyarnya with Harihara and Bukka and Swami Samartha Ramdas with Shivaji Maharaj) otherwise all Hindu saints make Hindus increasingly vulnerable. This is the Paradox of Hinduism while fighting Islam We have no answer on how Hindus will resolve this paradox
What has defeated Islam so far and what can defeat it in future
The history of Islam tells us that he only contest which the Muslims lost was that between them and the Atheistic-Communists. This was so as it is only the Communists who have it in their outlook to force-fit the Communist outlook in the population, something which it shares with Islam, so when Islam came into conflict with Communism, and when communism had political power, it did not allow Islam to exist, as it also did not allow any other religion to exist. This way the Communist and Islamic outlooks complimented each other. Both the Muslims and the communists had zero tolerance of each other. In this context all other religious outlooks failed to counter Islam, as all of them differing levels of tolerance for other faiths, while Islam has none. So only that outlook can defeat and destroy Islam which has zero tolerance of Islam while its methods are more ruthless, cruel, pervasive , persistent and global than those of Islam. So far only communism has been such an outlook. Maybe in future there would a non-Communistic outlook which is as effective against Islam as Communism was
All this notwithstanding today’s alliance of the Communists with the Muslims is because both of them see in the USA a common enemy of Islam and Communism.
But ironically whenever the communists had power, they did not initiate a dialogue with any religion, they simply acted, by taking over the education system, closing down the places of worship, or severely circumscribing them, they sent religious (and other) dissidents to re-education centers, and the more committed of the dissidents to Concentration camps and the most incorrigible ones to the firing squad.
Communism has been the only attitude that has destroyed religion, although the destruction was unfortunately not complete.
Interestingly, it is the ruthless (communistic) attitude in global state policy (after the War on Terror destroys some religions and weakens all others) that will complete this unfinished task of destroying all religion. Communism in the 20th century was a false start for atheism. Now in the 21st century, the real start for atheism (minus the economic ideology of communism) will come, which will sound the death knell of all religions.
We do not advocate Hinduism at all, as some might think, we only support the free-thinking that goes with Hindu culture (and all other natural human societies that existed before organized monotheism of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, and then the missionary Christianity, and finally the ISLAM of the schizophrenic savages came about) We also do not support the economic ideology of communism.
We support a natural human state of existence where atheism and scientific temper rules human outlook. And although we advocate free thought, we will prevent religion to grow in human minds. Since to enable free thought to exist, we need to prohibit religion from being reborn, since religion prohibits free thought.
But ironically going by the track record of religion over the last three millennia, especially that of Christianity, and finally the Islam of the schizophrenic savages, freedom of though would have to sanitized so that religious belief never takes hold over the human mind ever again.
In this scenario of the fight between religions (war on terror) and the following fight to get rid of the weakened religions, the Hindus are the least capable of being active players in the scenario of the demise of religion, since Hindus cannot battle anybody with their open-ended theology. And so most Hindus will not fight Islam, but advocate peace with Muslims, while Muslims call for the destruction of all religions, including Hinduism.
Hence the Hindus are most ineffectual and in fact most Hindus would effectively be obstacles in the process of destroying Islam. Most Hindus would be sterile spectators of this process and some of them (psecs and pacifists) in fact would be trying to defend and save the Muslims. Such Hindus would themselves have to be actively destroyed, if not by the Muslims in their fight with all religions, then by the any anti-Islamic agency.
Once Islam is militarily defeated and then destroyed; the need of the day would be to come up with workable creative ideas, for brainwashing the remaining religious fanatics with techniques like anesthesia leading to amnesia and re-education of such brainwashed ex-religious fanatics; or the use of mass lobotomy to achieve the same result. Only such a technique could prevent religious fanaticism from being resurrected with a name other than Islam and insure the progress of human civilization without any obstacle from any religion.
The War on Terror is the first step towards that, so we are not surprised whenever there is an escalation of this war, after all in today’s situation, we need an escalation of violence for the next few years or decades to prevent sustained religious violence in the coming centuries. A violence that has been exacerbated to blood-curdling depths by Islam – the most violent and cruel expression of the malady called religion. A malady whose end will begin with the vaporization of all Muslims till we vaporize the very last Muslim who infests our beautiful planet.
* For those uninitiated, PBUH expands to Perpetual Battle Upon Hagarism (Islam) – founded by the mass-murderer and pedophile pretender prophet Mohammed-ibn-Abdallah (Yimach Shmo – May his name and memory be obliterated).
Select Bibliography The Mummy, Funeral Rites & Customs in Ancient Egypt, by Ernest A. Wallis Budge, reprint of 1893 edition by Senate Studio Editions 1995
The Twilight of Ancient Egypt, First Millennium B.C.E., by Karol Mysliwiec, translated by David Lorton, Cornell University Press2000
Egypt in The Age of Cleopatra, by Michel Chauveau, translated by David Lorton, Cornell University Press, 2000
Women in Ancient Egypt, by Gay Robins, Harvard University Press, 1996
Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A Source Book by Jane Rowlandson, Cambridge University Press, 1998
The Chronicle of John Coptic Bishop of Nikiu (circa 690 A.D.), translated by Robert Henry Charles, reprint from 1916 edition, APA-Philo Press Amsterdam, Holland
The Vanished Library, A Wonder of The Ancient World, by Luciano Canfora, University of California Press
The Story of The Church of Egypt, Volumes I and II, by Edith L. Butcher, reprint of 1897 edition by AMS Press Inc, New York, N.Y 1975
Coptic Egypt, by Murad Kamil, Le Scribe Egyptien, 1968
Traditional Egyptian Christianity, A History of the Coptic Church, by Theodore. Hall Patrick, Fisher Park Press, 1999
Muslim Extremism in Egypt, The Prophet and the Pharaoh, by Gilles Kepel, University of California Press 1993
Ancient Egyptian Culture, published by Chartwell Books, Edison, N.J. 1998.
Samson Blinded: A Machiavellian Perspective on the Middle East Conflict, by Obadiah Shoher
Jihad in the West: Muslim Conquests from the 7th to the 21st Centuries (Hardcover) by Paul Fregosi
The Sword of the Prophet: History, Theology, Impact on the World by Srdja Trifkovic
Islam Unveiled: Disturbing Questions About the World’s Fastest Growing Faith by Robert Spencer
Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic (Studies in Late Antiquity and Early Islam) by David Cook
Why I Am Not a Muslim by Ibn Warraq
Onward Muslim Soldiers by Robert Spencer
Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis by Bat Ye’Or
Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide by Bat Yeor
What the Koran Really Says: Language, Text, and Commentary by Ibn Warraq
Islam and Terrorism: What the Quran Really Teaches About Christianity, Violence and the Goals of the Islamic Jihad by Mark A. Gabriel, Mark A. Gabriel
A Concise History of the Crusades by Thomas F. Madden
The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) by Robert Spencer
The Great Divide: The failure of Islam and the Triumph of the West by Marvin Olasky
The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims by Robert Spencer
Islam Unveiled: Disturbing Questions About the World’s Fastest Growing Faith by Robert Spencer, David Pryce-Jones
The Koran (Penguin Classics) by N. J. Dawood
Don’t Keep me Silent! One Woman’s Escape from the Chains of Islam by Mina Nevisa
Christianity And Islam: The Final Clash by Robert Livingston
Holiest Wars : Islamic Mahdis, Their Jihads, and Osama bin Laden by Timothy R. Furnish
The Last Trumpet: A Comparative Study in Christian-Islamic Eschatology by Samuel, Ph.D. Shahid
Unleashing the beast: How a fanatical islamic dictator will form a ten-nation coalition and terrorize the world for forty-two months by Perry Stone
Contemporary Muslim Apocalyptic Literature (Religion and Politics) by David Cook
Islam and the Jews: The Unfinished Battle by Mark A., Ph.D. Gabriel
The Challenge of Islam to Christians by David Pawson
The Prophetic Fall of the Islamic Regime by Glenn Miller, Roger Loomis
Prophet of Doom : Islam’s Terrorist Dogma in Muhammad’s Own Words by Craig Winn
The False Prophet by Ellis H. Skolfield
The Approach of Armageddon: An Islamic Perspective by Muhammad Hisham Kabbani
The Cube and the Cathedral: Europe, America, and Politics Without God by George Weigel
Infiltration : How Muslim Spies and Subversives have Penetrated Washington by Paul Sperry
Unholy Alliance : Radical Islam and the American Left by David Horowitz
Unveiling Islam : An Insider’s Look at Muslim Life and Beliefs by Ergun Mehmet Caner
Perfect Soldiers : The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did It by Terry McDermott
Islam Revealed A Christian Arab’s View Of Islam by Anis Shorrosh
Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out by Ibn Warraq
The Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy Book by Ibn Warraq
This Article used by permission of "History of Jihad.Com." Thank You!
© 2009 – 2011, Matt. All rights reserved.
Despite the morality of using violence to achieve personal or political aims, the fact remains that Countries exist because of wars fought against their neighbours or rivals. Independence is largely secured through the employment of armed forces and the willingness to fight if threatened, this alone prepares us all for such an eventuality.
I commend you on your site it contains a lot of quality information and is well done.